First Published in 1999. This text is the author's attempt to orgnaise the field of psychology for students. This volume make a critical examination of various psychological and semi-pstchological attempts to classify fundamental human activities; and thereafter attempts to postulate elementary behaviour units which may serve psychology precisely as the atom and electron have served in chemistry.
Table of Contents
FOREWORD. -- I THE INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOLOGY OF YOU -- Introductory—Psychological Law—The Limits of Psychological Law—Psychology’s You Consists of Integrative Activities — Consciousness: A Product of Integrative Activity—Integrative Psychology Does Not Imply Control of the Organism by Environment. -- II FUNDAMENTAL ACTIVITIES -- Early Soul Theories—Modern Soul Theories— Mechanistic Theories—The Dynamic School—The Psvchoanalysts—The Instinctivists—James-—The Purposivists— Reaction Tendencies—Biological Action Tendencies—Prepotent Reflexes—Behavionstic Reflexes—Unit Responses—Summary. -- III ELEMENTARY UNIT RESPONSES -- The Organism as a Reacting Unit—Adequate Stimuli to Unit Responses: Stimulus must compete successfully with other Stimuli; Stimulus must change Unit Pattern of Activities; Stimulus must oppose or ally itself with Activity Pattern; Summary—Responses. of the Unit Organism; Responses of Opposition; Opposition-increase; Opposition-decrease; Alliance Responses; Alliance-increase; Alliance.decrease—Four Elementary Unit Responses: Dominance; Compliance; Submission; Inducement — Circular Series of Elementary Unit Responses -- IV THE HIDDEN MACHINERY -- PART I: RECEPTORS, NEURONS AND EFFECTORS -- Introductory—The Parts of the Hidden Machine and their ReLation to Each Other—(A). Receptors: General Classes and Types of Receptors-.--Reception versus Sensation—Skin Receptors—Touch and Pressure—Thermal Receptors—Pain—Chemi. cal SensIbility—Vision—Hearing—SmeLL—Taste-— Muscular Sensitivity—Tendon Receptors—Joint Receptors—Balance and Equilibrium—The Visceral Receptors: Hunger—Thirst—Abdominal Pain—Other Visceral Receptors—(B). The Neuron: Nerve Trunk Conduction—Size and Function of Neurons—(C). Synapses: Structure of the Synapse —Function of the Svnapse—(D). Effectors: Genera! Types— The Muscles: Striped—Smooth— The Glands: Duct—Ductless—Endocrine: Thyroids Parathvrojds — Adrenais — Pituitary — Thymus—Pineal—Gonads. -- V THE HIDDEN MACHINERY -- PART II: PuT REACTIONS OF THE - HIDDEN MACHINERY -- Putting the Hidden Machinery together—The Reflex Arc—The Central Nervous System: The Brain; The Cerebrum; The Cerebellum; The Thalamus; The Medulla Oblongata; The Spinal Cord—Peripheral Nerve Groups—Tbe Cerebrospinal Nerves—The Autonomic Nervous System— Ganglionic Plexi—The Simple Reflex and the Total Response—Classes of Part-Reactions— Psycbomc Reactions—Summary. -- IV THE HIDDEN MACHINERY -- PART III: Acriows AND REACTIONS OF THE HIDDEN MACHINERY -- (A) Actions of the Hidden Machinery : The ‘Self’ and Its Role in the Unit Response; Genetic Stimulus Mechanisms and the Reflex Activities they Cause; Mechanical and Physical Stimulus Mechanisms resulting in Reflex Activity; SemiCircular Canals; Dilation of Blood Vessels; Variations in Smooth Muscle Tensions; Self Initiated Contractions of the Skeletal Muscles; Constant Auditory Activity; Regulation of Body Temperature; Pressure of Secretions; Chemical Stimulus Mechanisms: the Endocrines; Taste and Smell; Basic Metabolism; Nervous Mechanisms especially Devoted to Self Activities; Importance of the Self in the Unit Response; Actions of the Hidden Machinery Constitute the Self— -- (B) Reactions of the Hidden Machinery: Elementary Unit Responses; The Role of Part Reactions in Unit Response; Is there a Law of Natural Sequence between integrative Part Reactions? -- VII DRIVES -- PART I: HUNGER AND THE COMPOUND Uwrr RESPONSES OF DESIRE AND SATISFACTION -- Drives of the Self—Hunger Drive—Desire, a Compound Unit Response combining Passive Compliance and Active Dominance—Satisfaction. a Compound Unit Response combining Active Compliance and Passive Dominance—Appetite Response—Learned Hunger Drive. -- VIII DRIVES -- PART II: EROTIC DRIVE AND THE COMPOUND RESPONSES OF PASSION AND CAPTIVATION -- Introductory: The Genital Systems—Causes Underlying Love Behaviour—Passion: A Compound Unit Response combining Passive Inducement and Active Submission—Captivation: A Compound Unit Repsonse combining Active Inducement and Passive Submission—Erotic Drive and Love Response. -- IX DRIVES -- PART III: PROCREATION DRIVE AND THE COMPOUND UNIT RESPONSES OF ORIGINATION AND TRANSFORMATION -- Procreative Drive—Maternal Procreative Drive— Mother’s Origination Response.—Mothers Transformation Response—Other Types of Procreative Drive. -- X MOTIVATION -- PART I: ANIMAL AND HUMAN MOTIVATION -- Introductory—Two Types of Motives—What Motives Cause Animals to Learn ?—Comparativc Effectiveness of Different Animal Motives— Human Motives: Freud; Adler: Jung; Summary—Other Types of Motives in Psycho- analytical Therapy. -- XI MOTIVATION -- PART II: UNIT RESPONSE MOTIVATION -- Introductory — Compliance — Dominance — Inducement—Submission—Compound Unit Response Motives: Desire; Satisfaction; Passion; Captivation—Complex Unit Response Motives: Origination; Transformation. -- XII LEARNING, RECALL, AND INTELLIGENCE -- Introductory—Preliminary Definition of Learning —Where and Flow Learning Occurs—The Learning Process—Animal Learning—Human Learning—- Retention—Factors in Behavior which make for Retention: Frequency; Recency; Intensity; Congruity—Some PractcaI Aspects of the Problem of Retention—Successful Completion of Actions or Reactions—The Conditioned Reflex: Technique for Integrating Substitute Stimuli; Substitute Response; Popular Usage Objections—RecaU— The Synaptic Process of Recall—Intelligence— What is Intelligence? -- XIII THE PLACE OF CONSCIOUSNESS IN UNIT RESPONSE PSYCHOLOGY -- Subjective Considerations—Consciousness as a Part-Reaction—Various Views of Consciousness— Attributes of Consciousness (Subjective)—Corresponding Attributes of Synaptic Conduction— Psychons—The Place of Consciousness in the UNTT RESPONSE. -- XIV SENSATION -- Introductory—Sensation as Viewed Physiologically: Visual Theories; General Theories; The Physiologists Relation to Theories of Sensation— The Panpsychic Theory of Sensation (Psychological)—The Psychonic Theory of Sensation (Psycho. logical)—General Statement of Psychonic Theory of Sensation—Integrative (Psychonic) Theory of Vision: Black-White Sensations; Colour Sensatons; Blue-Dominance; Yellow-Submission; Green-Compliance; Red-Inducement; Complementarv Colours—The Psychonic Theory of Sensations other than the Visual—The Function of Sensation in the Unit Response. -- XV THOUGHT-PROCESSES -- Introductory—Contemporary Theories of the Nature of Thought: The Introspectionist Position; The Behavioristic Position; The View-point of Gestalt Psychology; The View-point of the Middle Grounders “—“ Mental Association bP The Objective View.point as to Thought—The Six Types of Relationship Underlying Thought: (z) Relationships between different groups of Sensory Impulses; (i) Relationships between groups of Sensory and Correlation Impulses; (3) Relationships between groups of Sensory and Motor Impulses; (4) Relationships between different groups of Correlation Impulses; () Relationships between groups of Correlation and Motor Impulses; (6) Relationships between different groups of Motor Impulses; Summary of Type-relationships—The Four Primary Integration Types: Dominance-type Thought-processes; Compliance-type Thought- processes; Submission-type Thought-processes; Inducement-type Thought-processes—Compound Unit Responses of the Intellect: Grasping; Comprehension—Intellectual Complex Unit Response of Knowing—Compound Unit Responses: ‘Creative’ Imagination—Explanation—The Complex Response of Realization—Intellectual “ Creative” Responses: Origination; Transformation— Mental” Functions”: Imagery; Concentration; Attention—The General Psychonic Theory of Thought-processes—The Function of Thought in the Unit Response. -- XVI EMOTION -- PART I: FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS -- Introductory—Previous Theones of the Nature of Emotion—Motation—Feeling—Priniary Emotions: -- The Primary Integration-types of the Motor System: Dominance; Compliance; Inducement; Submission—Compound Emotions: Desire; Satisfaction; Passion and Captivation—Other Compound Emotions—Complex Emotions: Appetite; Love—Creation. -- XVII EMOTION -- PART II INTEGRATIVE THEORY OF ABNORMAL -- EMOTION: AND THE PLACE OF EMOTION IN UNIT RESPONSES -- Appetitive-type and Love-type Motor Responses— Abnormal Emotions: Fear and Rage; Jealousy and Hatred—The Objective Nature of Abnormal Emotions — The Physiologial Expression of Emotion—The General Psychonic Theory of Emotion—Place of Emotion in the Unit Response. -- XVIII EMOTION -- Pur III : BODILY SYMPTOMS OF EMoTIoN -- Introductory—Theoretical Significance of Bodily Changes—Blood Pressure—Pulse Rate—Blood Volume—Respiration—Electrical Changes—Nitrogen Excretion—Evaluation of Psycho-Physiological Measures of Emotion—” Psychological Measures: Association Reaction Times—Responses of Children to Emotional Stimuli—Glandular Visceral and Muscular Changes-Experiments on the Bodily Symptoms of. the Four Primary Emotions: Compound Emotions have varying Bodily Symptoms; Elementary Emotions Experimentally Determined by Ideas; Ideas Experimentally Determined by Motion Pictures; Are Bodily Symptoms of Elementary Emotions Predictable?; Results; SeX Differences; Conclusions-Future Experimental Work on Emotion —Bibliography. -- XIX PERSONALITY -- PART I: PERSONALITY PATTERNS AND THE LOVE TYPE -- Introductory—Personality Patterns—Types of Personality Patterns—The Love Type: Women; Youths; Intellectual Originators; The Inventor- The Subdivision of Personality Types. -- XX PERSONALITY -- PART II: APPETITIVE AND DUPLEX TYPES -- Appetitive Type PersonalitymSensory Appetitive Types The motional Appetiti ye Types: Intellectual Appetitive Types-Differences between Love Type and Appetitive Type Personalities Duplex Type Personality. Duplex Sensory Types r Duplex Emotional Types*-Duplex Intellectual Types-Summary. -- INDEX.
William M Marston, C Daly King