Interaction Design for 3D User Interfaces: The World of Modern Input Devices for Research, Applications, and Game Development, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Interaction Design for 3D User Interfaces

The World of Modern Input Devices for Research, Applications, and Game Development, 1st Edition

By Francisco R. Ortega, Fatemeh Abyarjoo, Armando Barreto, Naphtali Rishe, Malek Adjouadi

A K Peters/CRC Press

763 pages | 24 Color Illus. | 261 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2016-01-25
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In this new era of computing, where the iPhone, iPad, Xbox Kinect, and similar devices have changed the way to interact with computers, many questions have risen about how modern input devices can be used for a more intuitive user interaction. Interaction Design for 3D User Interfaces: The World of Modern Input Devices for Research, Applications, and Game Development addresses this paradigm shift by looking at user interfaces from an input perspective.

The book is divided into four parts:

  • Theory of input devices and user interfaces, with an emphasis on multi-touch interaction
  • Advanced topics on reducing noise on input devices using Kalman Filters
  • A collection of hands-on approaches that allows the reader to gain experience with some devices
  • A case study examining speech as input

Most of the chapters contain exercises that provide practical experience to enhance knowledge of the material in the related chapter. With its hands-on approach and the affordability of the required hardware, this book is an excellent flexible resource for both the novice and the expert in 3D user input device development. Researchers and practitioners will gain a much deeper understanding about user input devices and user interfaces. Game developers and software designers will find new techniques to improve their products by adding intuitive user interaction mechanisms to their games and applications. In addition to the resources provided in the book, its companion website,, provides additional resources, which include: additional exercises and project ideas, additional chapters, source code, and class instructors’ resources. The additional resources are provided to keep helping you with new research and new technology as it becomes available to help you stay up to date.

Table of Contents



The Vision

Human–Computer Interaction


Further Reading

Input Interfaces


Input Technologies

User Input Interfaces

Input Devices

Input Recognition

Virtual Devices

Input Taxonomies

Further Reading

Output Interfaces and Displays

3D Output Interfaces


Further Reading

Computer Graphics

Computer Graphics

Further Reading

3D Interaction


3D Manipulation

Further Reading

3D Navigation

3D Travel


3D Navigation: User Studies

Further Reading

Descriptive and Predictive Models


Predictive Models

Descriptive Models

Further Reading




Multi-Touch and Its Applications

Figures of Large TabletTop Displays

Further Reading

Multi-Touch for Stereoscopic Displays

Understanding 3D Touch

Touching Parallaxes

Multi-Touch Above the Tabletop

Interaction with Virtual Shadows

Perceptual Illusions for 3D Touch Interaction

Pen and Multi-Touch Modeling and Recognition


The Dollar Family

Proton++ and More


Using Multi-Touch with PetriNets


PeNTa: Petri Nets

Further Reading

Eye Gaze Tracking as Input in Human–Computer Interaction

Principle of Operation

Post-Processing of POG Data: Fixation Identification

Emerging Uses of EGT in HCI: Affective Sensing

Further Reading

Brain–Computer Interfaces: Considerations for the Next Frontier in Interactive Graphics and Games

Frances Lucretia Van Scoy


Neuroscience Research

Implications of EEG and fMRI-Based Research for the Brain–Computer Interface


A Simple Approach to Recognizing Specific Brain Activities Using Low-End Neuroheadsets and Simple Clustering Techniques

Evidence of Feasibility of Using EEG Data to Recognize Active Brain Regions


For Further Reading


Math for 3D Input

Steven P. Landers and David Rieksts


Axis Conventions



Axis Angle Rotations

Two Vector Orientation

Calibration of Three Axis Sensors


Further Reading

Introduction to Digital Signal Processing


What Is a Signal?

Classification of Signals

Applications of Digital Signal Processing


Signal Energy and Power

Mathematical Representation of Elementary Signals

Sampling Theorem

Nyquist–Shannon Theorem



Fourier Analysis

Fast Fourier Transform



Further Reading

Three Dimensional Rotations


Three Dimensional Rotation

Coordinate Systems

Euler Angles


Further Reading

MEMS Inertial Sensors and Magnetic Sensors


Inertial Sensors

MEMS Inertial Sensor Errors


MEMS Magnetometer Errors

Further Reading

Kalman Filters


Least Squares Estimator

Kalman Filter

Discrete Kalman Filter

Extended Kalman Filter

Further Reading

Quaternions and Sensor Fusion


Quaternion-Based Kalman Filter

Quaternion-Based Extended Kalman Filter

Conversion between Euler and Quaternion

Further Reading


Hands-On: Inertial Sensors for 3D Input

Paul W. Yost


Motion Sensing and Motion Capture

Types of Motion Sensing Technology

Inertial Sensor Configurations for Input

Hands-On: YEI 3-Space Sensors

Hands-On: YEI Prio for Whole-Body Input

Further Reading

Simple Hands-On Project with Unity 3D and Oculus Rift

Nonnarit O-larnnithipong

Installation and System Requirements

Getting Started

Creating Game Scene

Lighting, Camera and Skybox

GameObject and Basic Action Script

Graphic User Interface (GUI)

Oculus Rift Integration for Unity

Further Reading

Hands-On Approach with Leap Motion

Frank E. Hernandez

What Is Leap Motion


Hands-On Mini-Project

Further Reading

Hands-On Approach with Kinect Sensor v2

Frank E. Hernandez

What Is the Kinect Sensor


Hands-On Mini-Project

Further Reading

Creating Home-Brew Devices with Arduino Microcontrollers

Sudarat Tangnimitchok


Analog Sensor

Serial Communication

Hands-On Project: Ultrasonic Proximity Sensor

Autonomous Bicycle with Gyroscope Sensor

Panuwat Janwattanapong and Mercedes Cabrerizo


AU Self-Balancing Bicycle (AUSB)

Data Processing

System Implementation and Results


Further Reading


Input Implementation Details

Input Devices

Multi-Touch Implementation

Working with a 3D Graphics Engine: OGRE

ECHoSS: Experiment Module

Further Reading


Multimodal Human-Like Conversational Interfaces

Ugan Yasavur and Christine Lisetti

Dialogue Management Overview

Dialogue Management in Health Dialogue Systems

Task-Based Spoken Dialog Systems

Embodied Conversational Agents

Brief Interventions for Alcohol Problems


Adaptive Dialogue Systems for Health

Ugan Yasavur and Christine Lisetti


Reinforcement Learning Background

Markov Decision Processes

Modeling World with Interconnected MDPs

Agent and Dialogue Strategy Learning

Reward Function Design

Speech Recognition and Language Model

Dialog Corpus



The World of Gesture Recognition

Input Frameworks and Development Considerations for Input Technologies

Hands-On: Multi-Touch and Pen Using Microsoft Windows 8 and Windows 10 with Microsoft Surface Pro

Hands-On: Intel RealSense SDK.



Jorge Chernicharo

Fixed Displays

Portable Displays

Hybrid Systems

Creating Your Own Virtual Reality Headset

Karrel Muller


Google Cardboard

About the Authors

Francisco R. Ortega, PhD, is a postdoctorate research fellow at Florida International University, Miami, where he received his PhD in computer science. He is the current director of the Open Human-Interface Device Laboratory at Florida International University ( He was a member of the Digital Signal Processing Laboratory at FIU, and has over 17 years of experience in software development and systems integration. His interests are in 3D user interfaces, input devices, human–computer interaction, 3D navigation, and input modeling, among other interests. He has multiple publications in journals, lecture notes, and conference proceedings.

Fatemeh Abyarjoo, PhD,received her PhD in Electrical engineering from Florida International University, Miami, where she was also a research assistant in the Digital Signal Processing Laboratory, focusing on sensor fusion for human motion tracking. She is currently a Fraud Risk Data Scientist, focusing on financial data analyzing. Her research interests are data mining, data analysis, statistical modeling, sensor fusion and wearable devices. She is a former Open Science Data Cloud PIRE National Science Foundation Fellow.

Armando Barreto, PhD, is a faculty member of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Florida International University, Miami, as well as the director of FIU’s Digital Signal Processing Laboratory. He earned his PhD in electrical engineering from the University of Florida, Gainesville. His work has focused on applying DSP techniques to the facilitation of human–computer interactions, particularly for the benefit of individuals with disabilities. He has developed human–computer interfaces based on the processing of signals and has developed a system that adds spatialized sounds to the icons in a computer interface to facilitate access by individuals with "low vision." He is a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Association for Computing Machinery.

Naphtali Rishe, PhD, is Eminent Chair Professor of Computer Science at Florida International University, Miami. He has authored three books on database design and geography and has edited five books on database management and high performance computing. He holds four US patents on database querying, semantic database performance, Internet data extraction, and computer medicine. He has also authored 300 papers in journals and proceedings on databases, software engineering, Geographic Information Systems, Internet, and life sciences. His TerraFly project—a 50-terabyte database of aerial imagery and Web-based GIS—has been extensively covered by worldwide press.

Malek Adjouadi, PhD, is a professor with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Florida International University, Miami. He received his PhD from the Electrical Engineering Department at The University of Florida, Gainesville. He is the founding director of the Center for Advanced Technology and Education funded by the National Science Foundation. His earlier work on computer vision to help persons with blindness led to his testimony to the US Senate on the committee of Veterans Affairs on the subject of technology to help persons with disabilities. His research interests are in image and signal processing with applications in neuroscience and assistive technology research.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Computer Graphics
COMPUTERS / Programming / Games