Introducing Phonetics and Phonology: 4th Edition (Paperback) book cover

Introducing Phonetics and Phonology

4th Edition

By Mike Davenport, S.J. Hannahs


328 pages | 125 B/W Illus.

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Paperback: 9780815353294
pub: 2020-03-01
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pub: 2020-03-01
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Intended for the absolute beginner, Introducing Phonetics and Phonology requires no previous background in linguistics, phonetics or phonology. Starting with a grounding in phonetics and phonological theory, the book provides a base from which more advanced treatments may be approached.

It begins with an examination of the foundations of articulatory and acoustic phonetics, moves on to the basic principles of phonology, and ends with an outline of some further issues within contemporary phonology. Varieties of English, particularly Received Pronunciation and General American, form the focus of consideration, but aspects of the phonetics and phonology of other languages are discussed as well. This new edition includes: revised exercises and examples; additional coverage of typology, autosegmental phonology, and articulatory and acoustic phonetics; broader coverage of varieties that now features Australian English; and an extended chapter 7 that includes more information on the relationship between phonetics and phonology.

Introducing Phonetics and Phonology 4th Edition remains the essential introduction for any students studying this topic for the first time. This new edition has been revised and updated throughout in light of advances in the field, without compromising the overall aims of the text: to provide an accessible introduction to phonetics and phonology

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Introducing Phonetics and Phonology

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Phonetics and phonology

1.2 The generative enterprise

Further reading

Chapter 2 Introduction to articulatory phonetics

2.1 Overview

2.1.1 Airstream mechanism

2.1.2 The vocal cords

2.1.3 The velum

2.1.4 The oral tract

2.1.5 Manner of articulation

2.1.6 Place of articulation

2.2 Speech sound classification

2.3 Supra segmental structure

2.4 Consonants vs. vowels

Further reading

Chapter 3 Consonants

3.1 Stops

3.1.1 The production of stops

3.1.2 The release stage

3.1.3 Aspiration

3.1.4 Voicing

3.1.5 Glottalisation and the glottal stop

3.1.6 Variation in stops

3.2 Affricates

3.2.1 Voicing and variation

3.3 Fricatives

3.3.1 Distribution

3.3.2 Voicing

3.3.3 Variation in fricatives

3.4 Nasals

3.4.1 Distribution and variation

3.5 Liquids

3.5.1 Laterals Distribution and variation

3.5.2 Rhotics Distribution Variation

3.6 Glides

3.6.1 Distribution

3.6.2 Variation

3.7 An inventory of English consonants

Further reading

Chapter 4 Vowels

4.1 Vowel classification

4.2 The vowel space and Cardinal Vowels

4.3 Further classifications

4.4 The vowels of English

4.4.1 High front vowels

4.4.2 Mid front vowels

4.4.3 Low front vowels

4.4.4 Low back vowels

4.4.5 Mid back vowels

4.4.6 High back vowels

4.4.7 Central vowels

4.4.8 Distribution

4.5 Some vowel systems of English

4.5.1 RP (Conservative)

4.5.2 North American English (General American)

4.5.3 Northern English English

4.5.4 Lowland Scottish English

4.5.5 Australian English

Further reading

Chapter 5 Acoustic phonetics

5.1 Fundamentals

5.1.1 Waves

5.1.2 Sound

5.1.3 Machine analysis Spectrograms Waveforms

5.2 Speech sounds

5.2.1 Vowels and sonorants

5.2.2 Nasalisation, nasal vowels and rhoticisation Nasalisation and nasal vowels Rhoticised vowels

5.2.3 Other sonorants

5.2.4 Non sonorant consonants Stops Fricatives Transitions Voice onset time

5.3 Cross linguistic values

Further reading

Chapter 6 Above the segment

6.1 The syllable

6.1.1 The syllable as a phonetic entity

6.1.2 The internal structure of the syllable

6.1.3 Sonority and syllables

6.1.4 Syllable boundaries

6.1.5 Syllable typology

6.2 Stress

6.2.1 The functions of stress

6.2.2 Stress placement

6.2.3 Stress above the level of the word

6.3 Tone and intonation

6.3.1 Pitch

6.3.2 Tone

6.3.3 Intonation

Further reading

Chapter 7 Features

7.1 Segmental composition

7.2 Phonetic vs. phonological features

7.3 Charting the features

7.3.1 Major class features

7.3.2 Consonantal features

7.3.3 Place features

7.3.4 Manner features

7.3.5 Vocalic features [high] [low] [back] [front] [round] [tense] [Advanced Tongue Root]

7.3.6 Further considerations

7.4 Conclusion

Further reading

Chapter 8 Phonemic analysis

8.1 Sounds that are the same but different

8.2 Finding phonemes and allophones

8.2.1 Minimal pairs and contrastive distribution

8.2.2 Complementary distribution

8.2.3 Free variation

8.2.4 Overview

8.3 Linking levels: rules

8.4 Choosing the underlying form

8.4.1 Phonetic naturalness and phonological analysis

8.4.2 Phonetic similarity

8.4.3 Process naturalness

8.4.4 Pattern congruity

8.5 Summary

Further reading

Chapter 9 Phonological alternations, processes and rules

9.1 Alternations vs. processes vs. rules

9.2 Alternation types

9.2.1 Phonetically conditioned alternations

9.2.2 Phonetically and morphologically conditioned alternations

9.2.3 Phonetically, morphologically and lexically conditioned alternations

9.2.4 Non phonological alternations: suppletion

9.3 Representing phonological generalisations: rules and constraints

9.3.1 Formal rules Parentheses notation Braces

9.3.2 Constraints

9.4 Overview of phonological operations

9.4.1 Feature changing rules

9.4.2 Deletion

9.4.3 Insertion

9.4.4 Metathesis

9.4.5 Reduplication

9.5 Summary

Further reading

Chapter 10 Phonological structure

10.1 The need for richer phonological representation

10.2 Segment internal structure: feature geometry, underspecification and unary features

10.3 Autosegmental phonology

10.4 Suprasegmental structure

10.4.1 The syllable and its internal structure

10.4.2 Mora

10.4.3 Foot

10.4.4 Structure above the foot

10.5 Conclusion

Further reading

Chapter 11 Derivational analysis

11.1 The aims of analysis

11.2 A derivational analysis of English noun plural formation

11.3 Extrinsic vs. intrinsic rule ordering

11.4 Evaluating competing analyses: evidence, economy and plausibility

11.4.1 Competing rules

11.4.2 Competing derivations

11.4.3 Admissible evidence

11.5 Conclusion

Further reading

Chapter 12 Constraint based analysis

12.1 Introduction to Optimality Theory

12.2 The aims of analysis

12.3 Modelling phonological processes in OT

12.3.1 Assimilation

12.3.2 Deletion

12.3.3 Insertion

12.3.4 Metathesis

12.3.5 Reduplication

12.4 English noun plural formation: an OT account

12.5 Competing analyses

12.6 Conclusion

Further reading

Chapter 13 Constraining the model

13.1 Constraining derivational phonology: abstractness

13.1.1 Learnability

13.1.2 Synchrony and diachrony

13.1.3 Plausibility

13.2 Constraining the power of the phonological component

13.2.1 Constraining underlying representations

13.2.2 Constraining the rules

13.2.3 The organisation of phonology: Lexical Phonology

13.3 Constraining the power of OT

13.3.1 Constraining constraints

13.3.2 Opacity

13.3.3 Stratal OT

13.3.4 Learnability

13.4 Conclusion

Further reading

About the Authors

Mike Davenport is the Language Centre Director at the University of Durham, UK.

S.J. Hannahs is a Reader in Linguistics at the University of Newcastle, UK.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Phonetics & Phonology