Introduction to Corrections  book cover
1st Edition

Introduction to Corrections

ISBN 9781439860137
Published July 27, 2011 by Routledge
291 Pages 10 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Millions in our nation are under some type of judicial sanction, with some individuals behind bars but the majority serving their sentences while living and working among us. Introduction to Corrections examines predominant issues related to the system of administering to offenders in the United States. Written in a simple, concise style and enhanced with discussion questions and a list of key terms in each chapter, this volume begins with an overview of the system and a historical review and then focuses on select issues, including:

  • Sentencing goals and rationales, and types of sentencing
  • Noncustodial supervision, including probation, electronic monitoring, home confinement, halfway houses, and offender registration
  • Parole and postconfinement release
  • Jail, prison, and jurisdictional differences in correction systems
  • Challenges faced by corrections personnel, including overcrowding, health issues, sexual assault in institutions, and prison gangs
  • Constitutional challenges to inmate controls
  • Issues related to victims’ rights, including federal and state funds and notification programs
  • Correctional counseling perspectives and prevailing sociological theories
  • Controversies surrounding capital punishment in the United States
  • Juvenile corrections, including probation, parole, and life sentences for minors

The evolution of corrections in the United States has spanned three centuries and has moved from an origin of basic community-based confinement to an extensive system that includes federal, state, local, private, and military facilities and programs. Examining diverse topics relevant to a range of professionals in the corrections community, this book explores the functions of corrections as well as those who serve in the profession.

Table of Contents

Section I: Foundations of Corrections

An Overview of Corrections
Correctional Foundations
The Global Community
How Do We View Corrections?
What Is Corrections?
A Snapshot of Those Adults Confined and Under Judicial Sanctions
Juvenile Offenders
Professional Opportunities in Corrections
What Is the Goal of Corrections?

Corrections: A Historical View
Foundation for Institutional Corrections and the Rule of Law
Early Prison Reform and Reformers
Development of the American Prison System
The Penitentiary in America: New-Gate, Walnut Street Jail, and the Early Efforts to Develop Prisons
The Reform Era
Emergence of the National Prison Association
Early Steps in Federal Confinement
Early 1900s
The Industrial Era
Early Twentieth-Century Correctional Leaders and the Concept of Prisonization
Riots, Litigation, and Reform
A New Era in Corrections

Sentencing Goals and Rationales
Types of Sentences
Sentencing Models
Sentencing Disparity

Section II: Community Corrections

History and Process of Probation and Noncustodial Supervision
Overview of Noncustodial Supervision
History of Probation
Foundations of Federal Probation and Pretrial Services
The Probation Process
Offender Assessment
Electronic Monitoring
Intensive Supervision Probation (ISP)
Community Corrections
Day and Evening Reporting Centers
Home Confinement Programs
Residential Reentry Centers or Halfway Houses
Offender Registration
Correctional Treatment
Termination of Probation and Noncustodial Supervision

History and Process of Parole and Postconfinement Release
Postconfinement Release Options
Foundations of the Concept of Parole
Overview of Parole in the United States
History of Parole in the United States
Parole Differs From Probation
Parole Boards and Parole Selection
Other Factors Influencing the Awarding of Parole
Process of Parole and Postconfinement Supervision
Termination of Parole or Postconfinement Release

Section III: Institutional Corrections

The Gaol
The Advent of the Jail
Coming to Jail
The Garage Sally Port
Inmate Classification
How Inmate Classification Works
Inmate Housing
Inmate Supervision
Work Release Programs
Inmate Healthcare
Inmate Programs
Managing a Jail
Jail Overcrowding
The Jail as a Place of Execution

Correctional Systems and Institutions
Types of Correctional Systems and Institutions
Local Corrections
State Corrections
Federal Corrections
Private Corrections
Military Corrections
Juvenile Corrections

Prison Life
Staff: Managing the Prisoners
Correctional Officers
The Role of the Corrections Officer
Correctional Officer Assignments
Correctional Officer Power
Training of Correctional Personnel
Administering Inmate Rehabilitation Programs
Inmate World: Living Behind Bars
The Inmate Subculture
Social Structure
How Does It Form? Prison Social Structure and the Inmate Code
Male Prison Sexuality
Inmate Suicide and Prison
Mentally Ill Inmates
Aging Offenders
A Society of Violent Males
The Radicalization of Male Prison Inmates
Female Inmates
Critical Needs in Dealing With Female Inmates
Female Prison Sexuality
Female Inmate Suicide and Self-Mutilation

Section IV: Issues in Corrections

Current Issues and Problems Facing Corrections
Personnel Recruitment, Training, and Accreditation
Overcrowding of Institutions
Health, Medical, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Treatment
Health Issues: HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Hepatitis
Drug and Alcohol Treatment
Sexual Offender Treatment Programs
Aging Offender Population
Violence and Sexual Assault in Institutions
Prison Gangs
Women in Prison
Inmate Litigation
Breaking the Cycle of Recidivism

Inmate Rights and Correctional Law
History of Correctional Law
Inmate Access to the Courts (First Amendment)
Inmate Mail and Other Communications (First Amendment)
Religion (First Amendment)
Visitation and Association Rights of Inmates (First Amendment)
Search, Seizure, and Inmate Privacy (Fourth Amendment)
Inmate Discipline and Due Process (5th and 14th Amendments)
Other Due Process Issues: Classification, Transfers,
Personal Injuries, and Property Loss (5th and 14th Amendments)
Conditions of Imprisonment: Cruel and Unusual Punishment (Eighth Amendment)
Health Care (Eighth Amendment)
Female Inmates and Other Special Inmate Populations (14th Amendment)
Inmate Labor

Victims’ Rights
History of the Crime Victims’ Movement in the United States
Types of Victims
Costs That Crime Victims Suffer
The Role Correctional Agencies Play in Meeting Victims’ Needs

Correctional Counseling
Defining Correctional Treatment
Institutional Versus Community-Based Correctional Treatment Specialists
Custodial Staff Versus Correctional Treatment Staff
Theoretical Counseling Perspectives
Group Versus Individual Counseling

Capital Punishment
Methods of Execution Used in the United States
History of the Death Penalty in the United States
Further Evolution of the Death Penalty in the United States
Old Sparky: Texas Prison Museum
The Move to Eliminate Capital Punishment
Death Penalty in the United States after Gilmore
Execution and Gender
Capital Punishment: Jurisdictional View
Issues in Capital Punishment

Juvenile Corrections
Juvenile Crime
Who Is the Juvenile Offender?
The Juvenile System
Balanced and Restorative Justice and the Juvenile Offender
Juvenile Corrections: A Historical Glance
Juvenile Institutions, Detention, and Residential Confinement
Sheltered Care Facilities and Community Residential Facilities
Case Management and Supervision
Juvenile Justice Issues
Juvenile Probation, Parole, and Aftercare
Life Without Parole for Juveniles
Interstate Compact on Juveniles


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David H. McElreath, PhD, has served as professor and chair, Department of Legal Studies, the University of Mississippi; professor and chair, Department of Criminal Justice, Washburn University; associate professor, Southeast Missouri State University; assistant professor, the University of Southern Mississippi; instructor, Itawamba (Mississippi) Community College; colonel, U.S. Marine Corps; and he has held law enforcement and corrections positions with the Oxford (Mississippi) Police and Forrest County (Mississippi) Sheriff’s Departments. His education and training include a PhD in adult education and criminal justice, University of Southern Mississippi; an MSS, U.S. Army War College; MCJ, the University of Mississippi; BPA, the University of Mississippi; and he is a graduate of the U.S. Army War College. He is also the author or coauthor of numerous textbooks and publications on the criminal justice and homeland security systems.

Linda Keena, PhD, obtained her BCJ (1984) and MS (1991) degrees in criminal justice from Southeast Missouri State University, and her PhD (2006) from the University of Missouri. She is a former State of Missouri adult probation and parole officer and has taught in the Department of Criminal Justice and Sociology at Southeast Missouri State University, and most recently in the legal studies department at the University of Mississippi. She has established a record of scholarly publications that reflects a variety of criminal justice, restorative justice, religion, corrections, and community-based research topics. In addition, she is coauthor and project director for MEDFELS, a nationally recognized methamphetamine program for elementary schools. Dr. Keena is codirector of the Violence Prevention Office at the University of Mississippi, a program funded by the Office on Violence Against Women, U.S. Department of Justice, aimed at educating students and staff about the realities of sexual assault, relationship violence, and stalking.

Greg Etter, EdD, is an assistant professor of criminal justice at the University of Central Missouri. He retired as a lieutenant with the Sedgwick County Sheriff’s Office in Wichita, Kansas, after 29 years of service. He is rated as a gang expert by the National Gang Crime Research Center in Chicago, Illinois. Dr. Etter’s educational background includes BS and MS degrees from Wichita State University, and he earned his doctorate from Oklahoma State University. He is a member of the National Sheriff’s Association, American Jail Association, American Correction’s Association, Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, and the American Society of Criminology. He is the author of a textbook on hate crimes and numerous journal articles. Dr. Etter has presented papers and conducted law enforcement and corrections training all over the United States and Canada.

Ellis Stuart Jr. has served as director of public safety for the City of Hazlehurst, Mississippi; contract agent for the Mississippi Metro Narcotics Task Force, chief of police for the City of Greenwood Mississippi, director of public safety for the Mississippi University for Women, hearing officer for the Mississippi Parole Board, probation and parole officer for the Mississippi Department of Corrections, youth court counselor for the Mississippi Department of Youth Services, and juvenile planner for the Law Enforcement Administration Division, Mississippi Office of the Governor. Mr. Stuart’s education and training include a master’s degree in criminal Justice from Mississippi Valley State University, a bachelor’s degree in social and rehabilitation services from the University of Southern Mississippi, and he is a graduate of the Mississippi Law Enforcement Officers Academy, Mississippi State Fire Academy, and FBI National Academy. Mr. Stuart is currently serving as the Copiah County (Mississippi) coroner.

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