Introduction to Intelligence Studies (Hardback) book cover

Introduction to Intelligence Studies

By Carl J. Jensen, III, David H. McElreath, Melissa Graves

© 2012 – Routledge

374 pages | 50 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781466500037
pub: 2012-11-26
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Since the attacks of 9/11, the United States Intelligence Community (IC) has undergone an extensive overhaul. Perhaps the greatest of these changes has been the formation of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. As a cabinet-level official, the Director oversees the various agencies of the IC and reports directly to the President. The IC today faces challenges as it never has before; everything from terrorism to pandemics to economic stability has now become an intelligence issue. As a result, the IC is shifting its focus to a world in which tech-savvy domestic and international terrorists, transnational criminal organizations, failing states, and economic instability are now a way of life.

Introduction to Intelligence Studies provides a comprehensive overview of intelligence and security issues, defining critical terms, and reviewing the history of intelligence as practiced in the United States. Designed in a practical sequence, the book begins with the basics of intelligence, progresses through its history, describes best practices, and explores the way the IC looks and operates today. Each chapter begins with objectives and key terms and closes with questions to test reader assimilation.

The authors examine the "pillars" of the American intelligence system—collection, analysis, counterintelligence, and covert operations—and demonstrate how these work together to provide "decision advantage." The book provides equal treatment to the functions of the intelligence world—balancing coverage on intelligence collection, counterintelligence, information management, critical thinking, and decision-making. It also covers such vital issues as laws and ethics, writing and briefing for the IC, and the emerging threats and challenges that intelligence professionals will face in the future.


"The authors, all proven educators on national security issues, have effectively delivered on their objective … provides the student a clear understanding of the complexity of intelligence gathering and analysis."

Security Management

Table of Contents

An Overview of Intelligence

What Is Intelligence?

The Challenge of Defining Intelligence

Information and Intelligence

Types of Intelligence

Functions of Intelligence Agencies

Policymakers and Decision-Makers

Intelligence Foundations in U.S. Government

U.S. Intelligence Community

Purpose of Intelligence

Limitations of Intelligence

History of Intelligence in the United States

Revolutionary War to Civil War

Civil War to World War I

Law Enforcement Intelligence: The Palmer Raids

World War I to Pearl Harbor

World War II

The Cold War

National Security Act of 1947

Early Days of the CIA

Korean War

Creation of the National Security Agency

Evolution of IMINT


Vietnam Era

War at Home

Watergate and the Pike and Church Committees

The Carter Years

The Reagan Years: End of Cold War

End of the Soviet Union

Emergence of Terrorism

Espionage in 1980s and 1990s

The Clinton Years

9/11 and Its Aftermath

Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 and Creation of the Director of National Intelligence

Recent Developments in the Struggle against Terrorism

The IC Today

Designated Federal Agencies and the DNI

Director of National Intelligence

Independent Agencies: CIA

Department of Energy: Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence

DHS: Office of Intelligence and Analysis

DHS: Coast Guard Intelligence

Department of Justice: FBI

Department of Justice: DEA

Department of State: Bureau of Intelligence and Research

Department of the Treasury: Office of Terrorism and Financial


Military Agencies: Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines

Military Agencies: Defense Intelligence Agency

Military Agencies: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

Military Agencies: National Security Agency

Military Agencies: National Reconnaissance Office

Federal, State, and Local Agencies

Federal Agencies

State and Local Agencies

Private Sector


Considerations for Collection

Credibility Issues: Vetting the Source

Information: How Much Is Enough?

Protecting Sources and Methods

First Step in Collection—You Need to Have a Plan

Collection Methods: The "INTs"

Human Intelligence

Signals Intelligence

Geospatial Intelligence

Financial Intelligence

Open Source Intelligence

Barriers to Analysis

Murky World of IC

Psychological Barriers

Group Decision-Making

Bureaucratic Barriers: Politics and the Will of the Policymaker

Bureaucratic Barriers: Information Sharing

Security and Sharing: Inherent Tension

Analytical Methods

Critical Thinking


Structured Analytical Techniques

Understanding Our Assumptions: Key Assumptions Check

Considering All Sides of the Issue: Analysis of Competing Hypotheses

Preparing for Whatever Comes: Scenarios

The Emperor’s Clothes Are Fair Game: Contrarian Methods

Analytical Software

Putting It All Together: The Intelligence Cycle

Information and the Origin of the Intelligence Cycle

The Intelligence Cycle

Step One: Planning and Direction

Step Two: Collection

Step Three: Processing

Step Four: Analysis

Step Five: Dissemination

Step Six: Evaluation

Critical Reactions to the Intelligence Cycle


Defensive Counterintelligence

Classification Systems

Security Clearances

Counterintelligence Operations

Offensive Counterintelligence

Catching Spies in the United States

International Operations


Counterintelligence Operations Today

Covert Operations

Covert Operations

Clandestine Operations

Deception Operations

Recent History of Covert and Clandestine Operations by the United States

Military Covert Operations

Legal Requirements upon the President to Report Intelligence Operations

Covert Operations and the War on Terror

Are Covert Operations a Good Idea?

Constitutional Mandates—Overview of Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Roles

Legal Origin of the Intelligence Community

Intelligence and International Law

Targeting and Assassination

Fourth Amendment: Right to Privacy

History of FISA

28 Code of Federal Regulations 23

First Amendment Issues and Intelligence


Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

Terrorism and Legal Proceedings

Classified Information Procedures Act


Writing and Briefing for the Intelligence Community


Types of Intelligence Writing

Writing for an Audience

How to Write Intelligence Products

Good versus Bad Intelligence Writing

The Art of Writing

The Writing Process


Basics of Public Speaking

Briefing Preparation

The Briefing

Military Intelligence

Purpose of Military Intelligence

Types of Military Intelligence

Command and Control

The Military Intelligence Cycle

Evolution of Military Intelligence

Current State of Military Intelligence

Intelligence Role of the Commander

Role of the Military Intelligence Officer

The "2 Section"

Military Intelligence Assets

Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield and Today’s Threat Structure

Military Intelligence within the National Defense Structure

United States Army

United States Navy

United States Marine Corps

United States Air Force

Criminal Intelligence and Crime Analysis

History of Intelligence in Law Enforcement

Law Enforcement and Intelligence

Criminal Intelligence before the 9-11 Attacks

Intelligence-Led Policing in the United States and the National Criminal

Intelligence Sharing Plan

Fusion Centers

Crime Analysis

Research behind Crime Analysis

Types of Crime Analysis

Criminal Investigative Analysis

Geographic Profiling

Threats and Challenges for the Twenty-first Century


Natural Threats

Illicit Drug Production and Distribution

Border Security and Immigration Issues

Transnational Organized Crime

Human Trafficking

Intellectual Property Theft

Cyber Security

Weapons Trafficking


Failed States, Failing States, and Rogue Nations

Future of Intelligence

Forecasting the Future

A Look Ahead



Economic Trends


Vision 2015: How the DNI Defines the Future

Infrastructure and Technology



About the Authors

Carl J. Jensen III, Ph.D., is the director of the University of Mississippi’s (UM) Center for Intelligence and Security Studies. He also is a member of UM’s Legal Studies Department and serves in an adjunct capacity as a senior behavioral scientist with the RAND Corporation. Dr. Jensen served as a special agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for 22 years; his FBI career included service as a field agent, a forensic examiner in the FBI Laboratory, and an instructor and assistant chief of the Behavioral Science Unit. He has published extensively and lectured throughout the world.

David H. McElreath, Ph.D., has a background that includes service as professor and chair, Department of Legal Studies, University of Mississippi; professor and chair, Department of Criminal Justice, Washburn University; associate professor, Southeast Missouri State University; Colonel, United States Marine Corps; and Law Enforcement and Corrections positions with the Oxford (Mississippi) Police and Forrest County (Mississippi) Sheriff’s Department. He is the author of numerous publications on the criminal justice system.

Melissa Graves, J.D., M.A., serves as project coordinator and instructor at the University of Mississippi’s Center for Intelligence and Security Studies. Among her other accomplishments, she and her codeveloper Walter Flaschka have designed and implemented the Days of Intrigue, a realistic practical exercise conducted yearly at UM that involves numerous intelligence community agencies. She is presently pursuing a Ph.D. in history. Ms. Graves has been admitted to the Bars of Texas and Washington.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HISTORY / Military / General
LAW / Forensic Science
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Political Freedom & Security / Terrorism