Introduction to Plant Biotechnology (3/e): 3rd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Introduction to Plant Biotechnology (3/e)

3rd Edition

By H S Chawla

CRC Press

744 pages

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Description

This book has been written to meet the needs of students for biotechnology courses at various levels of undergraduate and graduate studies. This book covers all the important aspects of plant tissue culture viz. nutrition media, micropropagation, organ culture, cell suspension culture, haploid culture, protoplast isolation and fusion, secondary metabolite production, somaclonal variation and cryopreservation. For good understanding of recombinant DNA technology, chapters on genetic material, organization of DNA in the genome and basic techniques involved in recombinant DNA technology have been added. Different aspects on rDNA technology covered gene cloning, isolation of plant genes, transposons and gene tagging, in vitro mutagenesis, PCR, molecular markers and marker assisted selection, gene transfer methods, chloroplast and mitochondrion DNA transformation, genomics and bioinformatics. Genomics covers functional and structural genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, sequencing status of different organisms and DNA chip technology. Application of biotechnology has been discussed as transgenics in crop improvement and impact of recombinant DNA technology mainly in relation to biotech crops.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition

Preface to the First Edition

Abbreviations

List of color figures

PART I: PLANT TISSUE CULTURE

INTRODUCTION

New technologies

Origin of biotechnology

History

LABORATORY ORGANIZATION

Washing facility

General laboratory and media preparation area

Transfer area

Culturing facilities

Green houses

Laboratory and personal safety

NUTRITION MEDIUM

Units for solution preparation

Media composition

STERILIZATION TECHNIQUES

Preparation of sterile media, containers and small instruments

Maintenance of aseptic conditions

Sterilization of explant

Protocols

TYPES OF CULTURE

Cytodifferentiation

Organogenic differentiation

Types of culture

Protocols

MICROPROPAGATION

Axillary bud proliferation approach

Organogenesis

Embryogenesis

Advantages of micropropagation

Problems associated with micropropagation

Protocols

CELL SUSPENSION AND SECONDARY METABOLITES

Types of suspension cultures

Growth measurements

Synchronization of suspension culture cells

Technique for single cell culture—Bergmann cell plating technique

Production of secondary metabolites

Morphological and chemical differentiation

Application

Problems associated with secondary metabolite production

Immobilized cell systems

Biotransformation

Secondary metabolite production using genetically engineered plant cell cultures

Protocols

IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF HAPLOIDS

Androgenic methods

Significance and uses of haploids

Problems

Gynogenic haploids

Chromosome elimination technique for production of haploids in cereals (Barley and wheat)

Protocol

PROTOPLAST ISOLATION AND FUSION

Protoplast isolation

Protoplast development

Cell wall formation

Growth, division and plant regeneration

Somatic hybridization

Identification and selection of hybrid cells

Verification & characterization of somatic hybrids

Chromosome number in somatic hybrids

Cybrids

Potential of somatic hybridization

Problems and limitations of somatic hybridization

Protocol

SOMACLONAL VARIATION

Nomenclature

Schemes for obtaining somaclonal variation

Application of somaclonal variation

Basis of somaclonal variation

Disadvantages

Gametoclonal variation

GERMPLASM STORAGE & CRYOPRESERVATION

Cryopreservation

Slow growth method

Achievements

Applications

Limitations

PART II: GENETIC MATERIAL AND ITS ORGANIZATION

GENETIC MATERIAL

Sugars

Amino acids

Nucleotides

Polynucleotides

Genetic material

ORGANIZATION OF DNA AND GENE EXPRESSION

Different forms of DNA

Supercoiling—Tertiary structure of DNA

Cruciform—Tertiary structure of DNA

Eukaryotic DNA organization into nucleosomes

DNA content

Denaturation

Flow of genetic information: central dogma

Organization of genes in DNA molecules

Plant gene structure as discontinuous gene

Control sequences

Types of RNA molecules

Transcription

Genetic code and translation

PART III: RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY

BASIC TECHNIQUES

Agarose gel electrophoresis

Pulsed field gel electrophoresis

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

Nucleic acid blotting

Protein blotting

Dot blot technique

Autoradiography

E. coli transformation

Protocol

GENE CLONING: Cutting and joining DNA Molecules

Introduction

Enzymes for cutting: Restriction endonucleases

Joining DNA molecules

DNA modifying enzymes

Linkers and adaptors

Protocol

GENE CLONING: Vectors

Cloning vectors—features

Biology of E. coli K-12

Plasmids

Cosmids

Bacteriophage vectors

Phagemids

Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)

P1 phage vectors

P1 derived artificial chromosome (PAC)

Transposon

Shuttle vectors

Expression vectors

Protocols

GENE CLONING: cDNA and Genomic Cloning and Analysis of Cloned DNA Sequences

Gene libraries

cDNA cloning

Genomic cloning

Identification and analysis of cloned genes

Approaches for identification of genes

Detection of nucleic acid sequences

Radioactive probe preparation and labeling

Non-radioactive labeling

DNA sequencing

POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

Introduction

Procedure

Components in a polymerase chain reaction

Inverse PCR

Reverse transcriptase mediated PCR (RT-PCR)

Cloning of PCR products

Applications

Advantages

Problems

Protocol

IN VITRO MUTAGENESIS

Site directed mutagenesis

Insertional mutagenesis

TRANSPOSON GENETIC ELEMENTS AND GENE TAGGING

Transposable elements in bacteria

Transposable elements in eukaryotes

Classification

Transposon gene tagging

GENE ISOLATION

Chromosome maps

General strategies for cloning genes from plants

MOLECULAR MARKERS AND MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION

Morphological markers

Biochemical markers

Molecular markers

History of evolution of molecular markers

Non-PCR based approaches

PCR based techniques

Targeted PCR and sequencing

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)

Molecular markers and plant diversity

Fingerprinting

Marker assisted selection

Protocol

GENE TRANSFER IN PLANTS

Transient and stable expression

Marker genes

Chimeric gene vectors

Gene transfer methods

Status and expression of transferred genes

Protocols

CHLOROPLAST AND MITOCHONDRION DNA TRANSFORMATION

Chloroplast Transformation

The Plastid chromosome

Selectable markers

Homoplastomic lines development

Advantages

Applications

Limitations of Chloroplast Transformation

Mitochondrion transformation

Targetting of Transgene Product into Chloroplasts and Mitochondria

TRANSGENICS IN CROP IMPROVEMENT

Resistance to biotic stresses

IMPACT OF RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY

Agriculture

Status of transgenic crops

Benefits of transgenic crops

Biotech crops in India

Insect resistant plants through transgenic approach

Herbicide tolerant plants through transgenic approach

Plant based pharmaceuticals

Production of biofuels

Transgenic crops in future

Biotechnology in Process Industry

Bioremediation

Healthcare applications

Future

BIOSAFETY CONCERNS AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Risk analysis

Containment

Biosafety levels

Good laboratory practices

Good laboratory practices

Risk Management in Field Trials

National Biosafety Regulatory framework in India

Recombinant DNA safety Guidelines

Revised Guidelines for Research in Transgenic Plants

Cross border movement of transgenic germplasm for research purposes

Biosafety concerns

Socio-economic and ethical considerations

International protocols and conventions on biosafety

Regulatory frameworks in different countries

GENOMICS

Introduction

Mapping of prokaryotic genomes

Mapping of eukaryotic genomes

Gene location in DNA sequences

Yeast (S. cerevisiae) genome

Human genome

Arabidopsis genome

Rice genome

Functional genomics

Patterns of gene expression

Proteomics

Metabolomics

Phenomics

BIOINFORMATICS

Development of Bioinformatics

Role of Internet in Bioinformatics

Online

Browsing working and downloading

Sequences and Nomenclature

File Formats

Files of Structural data

Submission of Sequences

Databases

Molecular Biology Databases

Bioinformatics Databases and analysis Services

Specialized Resources

Bioinformatics Databases and Analysis Services

Bioinformatics tools for access to databases

Integrated Molecular Biology Database system

Database integration strategies

Detection of genes

Applications

Challenges

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

Protection of intellectual property

Appendix

Glossary

Author index

Subject index

About the Author

H. S. Chawla

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI011000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
SCI049000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biology / Molecular Biology
SCI086000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / General