Introduction to Spintronics: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Introduction to Spintronics

2nd Edition

By Supriyo Bandyopadhyay, Marc Cahay

CRC Press

636 pages | 148 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2015-09-23
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Description

Introduction to Spintronics provides an accessible, organized, and progressive presentation of the quantum mechanical concept of spin and the technology of using it to store, process, and communicate information. Fully updated and expanded to 18 chapters, this Second Edition:

  • Reflects the explosion of study in spin-related physics, addressing seven important physical phenomena with spintronic device applications
  • Discusses the recently discovered field of spintronics without magnetism, which allows one to manipulate spin currents by purely electrical means
  • Explores lateral spin-orbit interaction and its many nuances, as well as the possibility to implement spin polarizers and analyzers using quantum point contacts
  • Introduces the concept of single-domain-nanomagnet-based computing, an ultra-energy-efficient approach to compute and store information using nanomagnets, offering a practical rendition of single-spin logic architecture ideas and an alternative to transistor-based computing hardware
  • Features many new drill problems, and includes a solution manual and figure slides with qualifying course adoption

Still the only known spintronics textbook written in English, Introduction to Spintronics, Second Edition is a must read for those interested in the science and technology of storing, processing, and communicating information via the spin degree of freedom of electrons.

Reviews

"… a perfect, quantitative introduction to the field, with coverage of all important contemporary topics. Besides scientists and engineers working in the fields of spintronics, nanoelectronics, and quantum computing, this book will especially benefit undergraduate and beginning graduate students who have not been exposed to more rigorous training in quantum mechanics. For beginning students, the first five chapters cover the quantum mechanics of spin angular momentum, Dirac and Pauli equations, Bloch sphere, and density matrix. The rest of the book logically builds on this foundation—the authors take the reader by the hand and lead her/him through the detailed derivations from the basic expressions to the equations describing the physics of contemporary spintronic devices."

—Boris M. Vulovic, Lecturer, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, USA, and Senior Research Engineer, APIC Corporation, Culver City, California, USA

"… provides a useful introduction to spintronics and nanomagnetism for beginning graduate students. The authors are well established in their field and naturally bring a technical perspective from being active in research."

—Avik Ghosh, University of Virginia

"The book gives a generous broad overview of spintronics. It sets off from the basic quantum mechanics needed and subsequently moves systematically to higher experts levels to make the reader comfortable with current ideas and relevant research literature in this dynamic field."

—Karl-Fredrik Berggren, Linköping University, Sweden

"… provides sufficient knowledge and understanding in the field of spintronic devices for researchers and students in academics and industry. … I am sure this book will provide a very good platform for further development of spintronics research and education.

—Saroj Prasad Dash, Chalmers University of Technology

"… amazingly comprehensive coverage … most welcome to not only those planning to but also those already working in this field of research and technology. … provides all that a novice graduate student needs to learn to rapidly attain a practical working knowledge of spintronics. Other readers of this book will gain a better understanding of the physics behind the most recent developments in spintronics."

—David J. Lockwood, National Research Council Canada

"… an elegant and logical flow among the different topics, which makes it more accessible to broad audience. Basic spin concepts illustrated by a comprehensive set of updated experimental evidences of spin effects in solid state materials are now clearly presented together with proposals for applications in quantum information processing. Overall, this is a great textbook for scientists and engineers as well as laymen, who want to familiarize themselves with this fascinating and emerging field of device physics."

—Jean-Pierre Leburton, Gregory Stillman Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Professor of Physics, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science& Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Table of Contents

The Early History of Spin

Spin

The Bohr Planetary Model and Space Quantization

The Birth of "Spin"

The Stern-Gerlach Experiment

The Advent of Spintronics

Problems

References

The Quantum Mechanics of Spin

Pauli Spinmatrices

The Pauli Equation and Spinors

More on the Pauli Equation

Extending the Pauli Equation - The Dirac Equation

The Time Independent Dirac Equation

Problems

Appendix

References

The Bloch Sphere

The Spinor and the "Qubit"

The Bloch Sphere Concept

Problems

References

Evolution of a Spinor on the Bloch Sphere

Spin-1/2 Particle in a Constant Magnetic Field: Larmor Precession

Preparing to Derive the Rabi Formula

The Rabi Formula

Problems

References

The Density Matrix

The Density Matrix Concept: Case of a Pure State

Properties of the Density Matrix

Pure versus Mixed State

Concept of the Bloch Ball

Time Evolution of the Density Matrix: Case of Mixed State

The Relaxation Times T1 and T2 and the Bloch Equations

Problems

References

Spin-Orbit Interaction

Microscopic or Intrinsic Spin-Orbit Interaction in an Atom

Macroscopic or Extrinsic Spin-Orbit Interaction

Problems

References

Magneto-Electric Subbands in Quantum Confined Structures in the Presence of Spin-Orbit Interaction

Dispersion Relations of Spin Resolved Magneto-Electric Subbands and Eigenspinors in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in the Presence of Spin-Orbit Interaction

Dispersion Relations of Spin Resolved Magneto-Electric Subbands and Eigenspinors in a One-Dimensional Electron Gas in the Presence of Spin-Orbit Interaction

Magnetic Field Perpendicular to Wire Axis and the Electric Field Causing Rashba Effect (i.e., along the z-axis)

Eigenenergies of Spin Resolved Subbands and Eigenspinors in a Quantum Dot in the Presence of Spin-Orbit Interaction

Why Are the Dispersion Relations Important?

Problems

References

Spin Relaxation

The Spin-Independent Spin-Orbit Magnetic Field

Spin Relaxation Mechanisms

Spin Relaxation in a Quantum Dot

Problems

References

Some Spin Phenomena

The Spin Hall Effect

The Spin Galvanic Effect

The Spin Capacitor Effect

The Spin Transfer Torque Effect

The Spin Hanle Effect

The Spin Seebeck Effect

The Spin Peltier Effect

Problems

References

Exchange Interaction

Identical Particles and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

Hartree and Hartree-Fock Approximations

The Role of Exchange in Ferromagnetism

The Heisenberg Hamiltonian

Problems

References

Spin Transport in Solids

The Drift-Diffusion Model

The Semiclassical Model

Concluding Remarks

Problems

References

Passive Spintronic Devices and Related Concepts

Spin Valve

Spin Injection Efficiency

Hysteresis in Spin Valve Magnetoresistance

Giant Magnetoresistance

Spin Accumulation

Spin Injection across a Ferromagnet/Metal Interface

Spin Injection in a Spin Valve

Spin Extraction at the Interface between a Ferromagnet and a Semiconductor

Problems

References

Active Devices Based on Spin and Charge

Spin-Based Transistors

Spin Field Effect Transistors (SPINFET)

Analysis of the Two-Dimensional SPINFET

Device Performance of SPINFETs

Power Dissipation Estimates

Other Types of SPINFETs

The Importance of the Spin Injection Efficiency

Transconductance, Gain, Bandwidth, and Isolation

Spin Bipolar Junction Transistors (SBJT)

GMR-Based Transistors

Concluding Remarks

Problems

References

All-Electric Spintronics with Quantum Point Contacts

Quantum Point Contacts

A Few Recent Experimental Results with QPCs and QDs

Spin Orbit Coupling

Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling (RSOC)

Lateral Spin-Orbit Coupling (LSOC)

Stern-Gerlach Type Spatial Spin Separation in a QPC Structure

Detection of Spin Polarization

Observation of a 0.5 G0 Conductance Plateau in Asymmetrically Biased QPCs with In-Plane Side Gates

Prospect for Generation of Spin Polarized Current at Higher Temperatures

Prospect for an All-Electric Spin FET

Conclusion

Problems

References

Single Spin Processors

Single Spintronics

Reading and Writing Single Spin

Single Spin Logic

Energy Dissipation Issues

Comparison between Spin Transistors and Single-Spin-Processors

Concluding Remarks

Problems

References

Quantum Computing with Spins

The Quantum Inverter

Can the NAND Gate Be Switched without Dissipating Energy?

Universal Reversible Gate: The Toffoli-Fredkin Gate

A-Matrix

Quantum Gates

Qubits

Superposition States

Quantum Parallelism

Universal Quantum Gates

A 2-Qubit "Spintronic" Universal Quantum Gate

Conclusion

Problems

References

Nanomagnetic Logic: Computing with Giant Classical Spins

Nanomagnetic Logic and Bennett Clocking

Why Nanomagnetism?

Problems

References

A Brief Quantum Mechanics Primer

Blackbody Radiation and Quantization of Electromagnetic Energy

The Concept of the Photon

Wave-Particle Duality and the De Broglie Wavelength

Postulates of Quantum Mechanics

Some Elements of Semiconductor Physics: Particular Applications in Nanostructures

The Rayleigh-Ritz Variational Procedure

The Transfer Matrix Formalism

Peierls’ Transformation

Problems

References

About the Authors

Supriyo Bandyopadhyay is Commonwealth Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Commonwealth University, where he directs the Quantum Device Laboratory. A Fellow of several scientific societies, Dr. Bandyopadhyay serves on the editorial boards of six international journals, and as the chair of the Technical Committee on Spintronics within the Nanotechnology Council of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). He previously served as the chair of the Technical Committee on Compound Semiconductor Devices within the Electron Device Society of IEEE, as an IEEE distinguished lecturer, and as a vice president of the IEEE Nanotechnology Council. Widely published, he has given more than 100 invited/keynote talks at conferences, workshops, and colloquia across four continents, and received the Distinguished Scholarship Award (the highest award for scholarship awarded to one faculty member each year) from Virginia Commonwealth University.

Marc Cahay is a professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computing Systems at the University of Cincinnati. Widely published and highly decorated, Professor Cahay is a Fellow of the Academy of Teaching and Learning at the University of Cincinnati, a Fellow of several scientific societies, a member of numerous editorial boards, the education chair of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nanotechnology Council, and a member of the IEEE Technical Committee on Spintronics, Nanomagnetism and Quantum Computing. He has served on the organizing committee of more than 30 international conferences, as an IEEE Nanotechnology Council and IEEE Electron Device Society distinguished lecturer, as a member of IEEE Technical Committee on Simulation and Modeling, and as the IEEE Nanotechnology Council vice-president of conference.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science
TEC027000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Nanotechnology & MEMS