Introduction to the Characterization of Residual Stress by Neutron Diffraction: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Introduction to the Characterization of Residual Stress by Neutron Diffraction

1st Edition

By M.T. Hutchings, P.J. Withers, T.M. Holden, Torben Lorentzen

CRC Press

420 pages | 168 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780415310000
pub: 2005-02-28
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pub: 2005-02-28
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Description

Over the past 25 years the field of neutron diffraction for residual stress characterization has grown tremendously, and has matured from the stage of trial demonstrations to provide a practical tool with widespread applications in materials science and engineering. While the literature on the subject has grown commensurately, it has also remained fragmented and scattered across various journals and conference proceedings.

For the first time, this volume presents a comprehensive introduction to stress measurement using neutron diffraction. It discusses all aspects of the technique, from the basic physics, the different neutron sources and instrumentation, to the various strategies for lattice strain measurement and data interpretation. These are illustrated by practical examples. This book represents a coherent unified treatment of the subject, written by well-known experts. It will prepare students, engineers, and other newcomers for their first neutron diffraction experiments and provide experts with a definitive reference work.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Residual Stress: Friend or Foe?

Historical Development of Stress Measurement by Diffraction

Special Characteristics of Neutron Strain Measurement

Nature and Origin of Residual Stress

Effects of Residual Stress

FUNDAMENTALS OF NEUTRON DIFFRACTION

Introduction

Scattering and Absorption of Neutrons and X-Rays by Atoms

Neutron Diffraction from Crystalline Solids

Penetration of Neutron Beams

Effects of Lattice Vibrations

Extinction, Texture, and Multiple Scattering

DIFFRACTION TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENT DESIGN

Neutron Sources

Diffractometers for Strain Measurement

Neutron Detectors

The Instrumental Resolution

Instrument Gauge Volumes

Sampled Gauge Volume and Effective Measurement Position

Specialized Instruments for Strain Measurement

PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF STRAIN MEASUREMENT USING NEUTRON DIFFRACTION

Introduction

Measurement of Diffraction Bragg Peak Profile

Analyzing Bragg Peak Profiles

Accuracy of Diffraction Peak Center Determination

Analysis of Complete Diffraction Profiles for Strain

Strain-Free Reference

Reproducibility Tests

INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF LATTICE STRAIN DATA

Inferring Stresses from Lattice Strains

Introduction to Mechanics of Crystallite Deformation

Elastic Anisotropy of Single Crystals

The Bulk Elastic Response of Polycrystals

hkl-Specific Response in a Polycrystal Undergoing Elastic Deformation

hkl-Specific Response in a Polycrystal Undergoing Plastic Deformation

APPLICATIONS TO PROBLEMS IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

Introduction

Welded Structures

Composites and Other Multiphase Materials

Plastically Deformed Components and Materials

Near-Surface Stresses

In Situ and Through-Process or Life Studies

THE FUTURE

SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

GLOSSARY

APPENDICES

Note on Reactor Flux Spectrum

Relation between the Centroid of Sampled Gauge Volume and Translator Reading

Points for Consideration When Making a Neutron Diffraction Stress Measurement

Macroscopic Scattering Cross-Sections of All Elements

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science