Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints : Non-Gasketed Joints book cover
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4th Edition

Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints
Non-Gasketed Joints




ISBN 9780849381768
Published August 24, 2007 by CRC Press
564 Pages - 338 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Redesigned for increased accessibility, this fourth edition of the bestselling Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints has been divided into two separate but complementary volumes. Each volume contains the basic information useful to bolting experts in any industry, but because the two volumes are more clearly focused, they are easier and more efficient to use. The first volume, Non-Gasketed Joints, describes the design, behavior, misbehavior, failure modes, and analysis of the bolts and bolted joints that play a large, even ubiquitous, role in the myriad machines and structures that form our world.

The author elucidates why proper bolt tension - often called preload - is critical to the safety and reliability of an assembled joint. He introduces many ways to create that preload as well as ways to measure or inspect for it, then covers how to design joints that are less apt to misbehave or fail, using the guidelines, procedures, and simple algebraic mathematics included in the text. The book provides numerous tables, charts, graphs, and appendices, giving you all the information and data required to design and use non-gasketed bolted joints. Now leaner and meaner, this new edition is better suited for classrooms as well as the practicing engineer.

Table of Contents

BASIC CONCEPTS
Two Types of Bolted Joints
Bolt's Job
The Challenge
Failure Modes
Design
Layout of the Book
Exercises

MATERIALS
Properties That Affect the Clamping Force
Fastener Standards
Selecting an Appropriate Standard
Bolting Materials
Tensile Strength of Bolting Materials
Metric Fasteners
Equivalent Materials
Some Comments on the Strength of Bolting Materials
Nut Selection
Effects of Temperature on Material Properties
Other Material Factors to Consider
Joint Materials
Exercises
References and Bibliography

STRESS AND STRENGTH CONSIDERATIONS
Types of Strength
Bolt in Tension
Strength of a Bolt
Strength of the Joint
Other Types of Load on a Bolt
Exercises and Problems
References and Bibliography

THREADS AND THEIR STRENGTH
Thread Forms
Thread Series
Thread Allowance, Tolerance, and Class
Inspection Levels
Thread Nomenclature
Coarse- versus Fine- versus Constant-Pitch Threads
The Strength of Threads
What Happens to Thread Form under Load?
Things That Modify the Static Strength of Threads
Other Factors Affecting Strength
Exercises and Problems
References and Bibliography

STIFFNESS AND STRAIN CONSIDERATIONS
Bolt Deflection
Bolt Stiffness Calculations
The Joint
Gasketed Joints
An Alternate Way to Compute Joint Stiffness
Joint Stiffness Ratio or Load Factor
Stiffness-Some Design Goals
Exercises and Problems
References

INTRODUCTION TO ASSEMBLY
Initial versus Residual Preload
Starting the Assembly Process
Bolt Preload versus Clamping Force on the Joint
Continuing the Snugging Pass
Short-Term Relaxation of Individual Bolts
Elastic Interactions between Bolts
The Assembly Process Reviewed
Optimizing Assembly Results
Exercises
References

TORQUE CONTROL OF PRELOAD
Importance of Correct Preload
Torque versus Preload-The Long-Form Equation
Things That Affect the Torque-Preload Relationship
Torque versus Preload-The Short-Form Equation
Nut Factors
Torque Control in Practice
Some Tools for Torque Control
Fasteners That Limit Applied Torque
Is Torque Control Any Good?
Testing Tools
The Influence of Torque Control on Joint Design
Using Torque to Disassemble a Joint
Exercises and Problems
References and Bibliography

TORQUE AND TURN CONTROL
Basic Concepts of Turn Control
Turn versus Preload
Friction Effects
Torque and Turn in Theory
Turn-of-Nut Control
Production Assembly Problems
Popular Control Strategies
Monitoring the Results
Problems Reduced by Torque-Angle Control
How to Get the Most Out of Torque-Angle Control
Exercises and Problems
Bibliography and References

OTHER WAYS TO CONTROL PRELOAD
Stretch Control: The Concept
Problems of Stretch Control
Stretch Measurement Techniques
How Much Stretch?
Problems Reduced by Stretch Control
How to Get the Most Out of Stretch Control
Direct Preload Control-An Introduction
Bolt Tensioners
Bolt Heaters
Problems Reduced by Direct Preload Control
Getting the Most Out of Direct Preload Control
Ultrasonic Measurement of Stretch or Tension
Ultrasonic Measurements Using Plasma-Coated, Thin Film Transducers
Exercises and Problems
References

THEORETICAL BEHAVIOR OF THE JOINT UNDER TENSILE LOADS
Basic Joint Diagram
Details and Variations
Mathematics of the Joint
Loading Planes
Dynamic Loads on Tension Joints
The Joint Under a Compressive Load
A Warning
Exercises and Problems
References

BEHAVIOR OF THE JOINT LOADED IN TENSION: A CLOSER LOOK
Effect of Prying Action on Bolt Loads
Mathematics of Prying
Other Nonlinear Factors
Thermal Effects
Joint Equations That Include the Effects of Eccentricity and Differential Expansion
Exercises and Problems
References

IN-SERVICE BEHAVIOR OF A SHEAR JOINT
Bolted Joints Loaded in Axial Shear
Factors That Affect Clamping Force in Shear Joints
Response of Shear Joints to External Loads
Joints Loaded in Both Shear and Tension
Present Definitions-Types of Shear Joint
Exercises
References

INTRODUCTION TO JOINT FAILURE
Mechanical Failure of Bolts
Missing Bolts
Loose Bolts
Bolts Too Tight
Which Failure Modes Must We Worry About?
Concept of Essential Conditions
Importance of Correct Preload
Load Intensifiers
Failure of Joint Members
Galling
Exercises
References

SELF-LOOSENING
The Problem
How Does a Nut Self-Loosen?
Loosening Sequence
Junker's Theory of Self-Loosening
Testing for Vibration Resistance
To Resist Vibration
Exercises
References and Bibliography

FATIGUE FAILURE
Fatigue Process
What Determines Fatigue Life?
Other Types of Diagram
Influence of Preload and Joint Stiffness
Minimizing Fatigue Problems
Predicting Fatigue Life or Endurance Limit
Fatigue of Shear Joint Members
Case Histories
Exercises
References and Bibliography

CORROSION
Corrosion Mechanism
Hydrogen Embrittlement
Stress Corrosion Cracking
Other Types of Stress Cracking
Minimizing Corrosion Problems
Fastener Coatings
Exercises
References and Bibliography

SELECTING PRELOAD FOR AN EXISTING JOINT
How Much Clamping Force Do We Want?
Simple Ways to Select Assembly Preloads
Estimating the In-Service Clamping Force
Relating Desired to Anticipated Bolt Tensions
Which Variables to Include in the Analysis
ASTM F16.96 Subcommittee on Bolting Technology
A More Rigorous Procedure
NASA's Space Shuttle Preload Selection Procedure
Exercises
References and Bibliography

DESIGN OF JOINTS LOADED IN TENSION
A Major Goal: Reliable Joints
Typical Design Steps
Joint Design in the Real World
VDI Joint Design Procedure
An Example
Other Factors to Consider When Designing a Joint
Exercises
References and Bibliography

DESIGN OF JOINTS LOADED IN SHEAR
An Overview
The VDI Procedure Applied to Shear Joints
How Shear Joints Resist Shear Loads
Strength of Friction-Type Joints
Strength of Bearing-Type Joints
Eccentrically Loaded Shear Joints
Allowable Stress versus Load and Resistance Factor Design
Exercises
References
Appendix A: Units and Symbol Log
Appendix B: Glossary of Fastener and Bolted Joint Terms
Appendix C: Sources of Bolting Information and Standards
Appendix D: English and Metric Conversion Factors
Appendix E: Tensile Stress Areas for English and Metric Threads with Estimated ''Typical'' Preloads and Torques for As-Received Steel Fasteners
Appendix F: Basic Head, Thread, and Nut Lengths

INDEX

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