Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints: Non-Gasketed Joints, 4th Edition (Hardback) book cover

Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints

Non-Gasketed Joints, 4th Edition

By John H. Bickford

CRC Press

564 pages | 338 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9780849381768
pub: 2007-08-24
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Description

Redesigned for increased accessibility, this fourth edition of the bestselling Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints has been divided into two separate but complementary volumes. Each volume contains the basic information useful to bolting experts in any industry, but because the two volumes are more clearly focused, they are easier and more efficient to use. The first volume, Non-Gasketed Joints, describes the design, behavior, misbehavior, failure modes, and analysis of the bolts and bolted joints that play a large, even ubiquitous, role in the myriad machines and structures that form our world.

The author elucidates why proper bolt tension - often called preload - is critical to the safety and reliability of an assembled joint. He introduces many ways to create that preload as well as ways to measure or inspect for it, then covers how to design joints that are less apt to misbehave or fail, using the guidelines, procedures, and simple algebraic mathematics included in the text. The book provides numerous tables, charts, graphs, and appendices, giving you all the information and data required to design and use non-gasketed bolted joints. Now leaner and meaner, this new edition is better suited for classrooms as well as the practicing engineer.

Table of Contents

BASIC CONCEPTS

Two Types of Bolted Joints

Bolt's Job

The Challenge

Failure Modes

Design

Layout of the Book

Exercises

MATERIALS

Properties That Affect the Clamping Force

Fastener Standards

Selecting an Appropriate Standard

Bolting Materials

Tensile Strength of Bolting Materials

Metric Fasteners

Equivalent Materials

Some Comments on the Strength of Bolting Materials

Nut Selection

Effects of Temperature on Material Properties

Other Material Factors to Consider

Joint Materials

Exercises

References and Bibliography

STRESS AND STRENGTH CONSIDERATIONS

Types of Strength

Bolt in Tension

Strength of a Bolt

Strength of the Joint

Other Types of Load on a Bolt

Exercises and Problems

References and Bibliography

THREADS AND THEIR STRENGTH

Thread Forms

Thread Series

Thread Allowance, Tolerance, and Class

Inspection Levels

Thread Nomenclature

Coarse- versus Fine- versus Constant-Pitch Threads

The Strength of Threads

What Happens to Thread Form under Load?

Things That Modify the Static Strength of Threads

Other Factors Affecting Strength

Exercises and Problems

References and Bibliography

STIFFNESS AND STRAIN CONSIDERATIONS

Bolt Deflection

Bolt Stiffness Calculations

The Joint

Gasketed Joints

An Alternate Way to Compute Joint Stiffness

Joint Stiffness Ratio or Load Factor

Stiffness-Some Design Goals

Exercises and Problems

References

INTRODUCTION TO ASSEMBLY

Initial versus Residual Preload

Starting the Assembly Process

Bolt Preload versus Clamping Force on the Joint

Continuing the Snugging Pass

Short-Term Relaxation of Individual Bolts

Elastic Interactions between Bolts

The Assembly Process Reviewed

Optimizing Assembly Results

Exercises

References

TORQUE CONTROL OF PRELOAD

Importance of Correct Preload

Torque versus Preload-The Long-Form Equation

Things That Affect the Torque-Preload Relationship

Torque versus Preload-The Short-Form Equation

Nut Factors

Torque Control in Practice

Some Tools for Torque Control

Fasteners That Limit Applied Torque

Is Torque Control Any Good?

Testing Tools

The Influence of Torque Control on Joint Design

Using Torque to Disassemble a Joint

Exercises and Problems

References and Bibliography

TORQUE AND TURN CONTROL

Basic Concepts of Turn Control

Turn versus Preload

Friction Effects

Torque and Turn in Theory

Turn-of-Nut Control

Production Assembly Problems

Popular Control Strategies

Monitoring the Results

Problems Reduced by Torque-Angle Control

How to Get the Most Out of Torque-Angle Control

Exercises and Problems

Bibliography and References

OTHER WAYS TO CONTROL PRELOAD

Stretch Control: The Concept

Problems of Stretch Control

Stretch Measurement Techniques

How Much Stretch?

Problems Reduced by Stretch Control

How to Get the Most Out of Stretch Control

Direct Preload Control-An Introduction

Bolt Tensioners

Bolt Heaters

Problems Reduced by Direct Preload Control

Getting the Most Out of Direct Preload Control

Ultrasonic Measurement of Stretch or Tension

Ultrasonic Measurements Using Plasma-Coated, Thin Film Transducers

Exercises and Problems

References

THEORETICAL BEHAVIOR OF THE JOINT UNDER TENSILE LOADS

Basic Joint Diagram

Details and Variations

Mathematics of the Joint

Loading Planes

Dynamic Loads on Tension Joints

The Joint Under a Compressive Load

A Warning

Exercises and Problems

References

BEHAVIOR OF THE JOINT LOADED IN TENSION: A CLOSER LOOK

Effect of Prying Action on Bolt Loads

Mathematics of Prying

Other Nonlinear Factors

Thermal Effects

Joint Equations That Include the Effects of Eccentricity and Differential Expansion

Exercises and Problems

References

IN-SERVICE BEHAVIOR OF A SHEAR JOINT

Bolted Joints Loaded in Axial Shear

Factors That Affect Clamping Force in Shear Joints

Response of Shear Joints to External Loads

Joints Loaded in Both Shear and Tension

Present Definitions-Types of Shear Joint

Exercises

References

INTRODUCTION TO JOINT FAILURE

Mechanical Failure of Bolts

Missing Bolts

Loose Bolts

Bolts Too Tight

Which Failure Modes Must We Worry About?

Concept of Essential Conditions

Importance of Correct Preload

Load Intensifiers

Failure of Joint Members

Galling

Exercises

References

SELF-LOOSENING

The Problem

How Does a Nut Self-Loosen?

Loosening Sequence

Junker's Theory of Self-Loosening

Testing for Vibration Resistance

To Resist Vibration

Exercises

References and Bibliography

FATIGUE FAILURE

Fatigue Process

What Determines Fatigue Life?

Other Types of Diagram

Influence of Preload and Joint Stiffness

Minimizing Fatigue Problems

Predicting Fatigue Life or Endurance Limit

Fatigue of Shear Joint Members

Case Histories

Exercises

References and Bibliography

CORROSION

Corrosion Mechanism

Hydrogen Embrittlement

Stress Corrosion Cracking

Other Types of Stress Cracking

Minimizing Corrosion Problems

Fastener Coatings

Exercises

References and Bibliography

SELECTING PRELOAD FOR AN EXISTING JOINT

How Much Clamping Force Do We Want?

Simple Ways to Select Assembly Preloads

Estimating the In-Service Clamping Force

Relating Desired to Anticipated Bolt Tensions

Which Variables to Include in the Analysis

ASTM F16.96 Subcommittee on Bolting Technology

A More Rigorous Procedure

NASA's Space Shuttle Preload Selection Procedure

Exercises

References and Bibliography

DESIGN OF JOINTS LOADED IN TENSION

A Major Goal: Reliable Joints

Typical Design Steps

Joint Design in the Real World

VDI Joint Design Procedure

An Example

Other Factors to Consider When Designing a Joint

Exercises

References and Bibliography

DESIGN OF JOINTS LOADED IN SHEAR

An Overview

The VDI Procedure Applied to Shear Joints

How Shear Joints Resist Shear Loads

Strength of Friction-Type Joints

Strength of Bearing-Type Joints

Eccentrically Loaded Shear Joints

Allowable Stress versus Load and Resistance Factor Design

Exercises

References

Appendix A: Units and Symbol Log

Appendix B: Glossary of Fastener and Bolted Joint Terms

Appendix C: Sources of Bolting Information and Standards

Appendix D: English and Metric Conversion Factors

Appendix E: Tensile Stress Areas for English and Metric Threads with Estimated ''Typical'' Preloads and Torques for As-Received Steel Fasteners

Appendix F: Basic Head, Thread, and Nut Lengths

INDEX

About the Series

Mechanical Engineering

A Series of Textbooks and Reference Books

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC016000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Design / General