Investigating Groundwater: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Investigating Groundwater

1st Edition

By Ian Acworth

CRC Press

586 pages

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pub: 2019-03-28
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Description

Investigating Groundwater provides an integrated approach to the challenges associated with locating groundwater. Uniquely, the book provides a review of the wide range of techniques that can be deployed to investigate this important resource. Many of the practical examples given are based upon Australian experience but the methods have worldwide applicability. The book is published in colour and includes many original diagrams and photographs. Particular effort has been made to provide consistent terminology and SI units are used throughout the text

Investigating Groundwater starts with an introduction to the historical significance of groundwater and gives an account of climate change. A description of the occurrence of groundwater in different rock types is then provided. A detailed account of surface water techniques is then followed by an account of the interconnections between surface water and groundwater. Four chapters describing groundwater hydraulics are then followed by four chapters describing the latest geophysical techniques. Once the best location of a borehole is determined using these techniques; chapters then describe appropriate drilling methods to use; provide a wide ranging review of geophysical logging, hydrochemical and isotopic techniques, before concluding with a detailed description of groundwater flow to a well.

Written for a worldwide audience of degree level geology/engineering practitioners, academics and students involved in groundwater resource investigation methods; Investigating Groundwater is essential reading for those involved in groundwater research.

Key Features:

  • Presents the theoretical background and a detailed description of the techniques used in the investigation of groundwater.
  • Describes the general occurrence of groundwater in different rock types; surface water hydrology and interconnected surface and groundwater systems.
  • Provides detailed descriptions of geophysical techniques (seismic, electrical, gravity and heat) and an account of available geophysical logging methods.
  • Reviews hydrochemical and isotope methods, followed by an account of drilling techniques.
  • Gives a detailed account of radial flow to a well, including appropriate modelling and pump-testing techniques and a consideration of non-linear flow.
  • Of interest to anyone involved in the development of groundwater resources, either for domestic supply, for agriculture or for mining.

Table of Contents

1 Groundwater environments

1.1 Early human movements based upon groundwater availability

1.2 Geological time span and types of rock

1.3 Groundwater in Australia

1.4 Groundwater in fractured rocks

1.5 Groundwater in basalt terrains

1.6 Groundwater in unconsolidated surficial deposits

1.7 Groundwater in limestone and chalk systems

1.8 Groundwater on oceanic islands

1.9 Groundwater terminology

2 Surface water and the atmosphere

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Properties of water

2.3 Radiation

2.4 Atmospheric and ocean circulations of water

2.5 Meteorological measurements

2.6 Rainfall

2.7 Streamflow measurement

2.8 Evaporation measurement

2.9 Estimates of evaporation from open water

2.10 Evapotranspiration estimates

3 Recharge, discharge and surface water groundwater connectivity

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Groundwater recharge

3.3 Recharge estimates

3.4 Groundwater discharge

3.5 Connectivity of surface water and groundwater

3.6 Groundwater dependent ecosystems

4 Physical properties of soil and the hydraulic head

4.1 Physical properties of soil

4.2 Water content

4.3 Water potential

4.4 Hydraulic head

4.5 Signal analysis techniques

4.6 Sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers

5 Hydraulic conductivity and Darcy’s Law

5.1 Introduction to Darcy’s Law

5.2 Limitations of the Darcian approach

5.3 Flow in fractured rocks

5.4 Relationship between grain-size distribution and hydraulic conductivity

5.5 Laboratory measurement of hydraulic conductivity

5.6 Field measurement of hydraulic conductivity

6 Transport equations and steady-state flow

6.1 Transport equations

6.2 Groundwater transport

6.3 Steady-State Flow

6.4 Numerical solution to the steady-state flow equation

6.5 Analogies to groundwater flow

7 Aquifer storage and abstraction impacts

7.1 Water storage in the unsaturated zone

7.2 Confined aquifer storage

7.3 Effective stress in a saturated system

7.4 Undrained response to natural loading

7.5 Derivation of specific storage from records of hydraulic head in confined aquifers

7.6 Derivation of specific storage – A linear poroelastic approach

8 Geophysical investigation techniques: seismic

8.1 Introduction to seismic methods

8.2 Cross-hole seismic method

8.3 Surface refraction methods

8.4 Seismic Refraction: Delay-time or plus-minus method

9 Geophysical investigation techniques: electrical

9.1 Electrical methods

9.2 Complex conductivity

9.3 Electrical potential theory

9.4 Continuous separation traversing (CST)

9.5 Vertical electrical sounding (VES)

9.6 Electrical conductivity imaging (ECI)

9.7 Induced potential (IP) measurements

9.8 Modelling of ECI data

9.9 Examples of ECI application: Black cotton soils

9.10 Coastal groundwater studies

9.11 ECI over fractured rock

9.12 IP Measurements

9.13 Electromagnetic profiling

10 Geophysical investigation techniques: gravity

10.1 Gravity Theory

10.2 Earth tides

10.3 General field procedures for a gravity survey of an area

10.4 Gravity corrections to gobs

10.5 Modeling gravity data

10.6 Analysing gravity anomalies

10.7 Applications of the gravity method

11 Geophysical investigation techniques: heat

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Geothermal heat flow

11.3 Underground heat storage in the soil

11.4 Thermal imagery

11.5 Field measurement of temperature

11.6 Thermal properties

11.7 Fourier’s Law and differential equations for heat flow

11.8 Heat as a tracer

12 Drilling and sampling techniques

12.1 Cable-tool (percussion) drilling

12.2 Rotary Methods

12.3 Sampling methods

13 Geophysical logging

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Caliper logs

13.3 Verticality logs

13.4 Fluid property logs

13.5 Fundamentals of nuclear geophysics

13.6 Neutron logs

13.7 Resistivity and electromagnetic logging

13.8 Logging via pushed or hammered sondes

13.9 Log interpretation

14 Hydrochemistry and groundwater isotopes

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Basic aquatic chemistry

14.3 Origin of solutes

14.4 Geochemical modelling

14.5 Example of hydrochemical analysis

14.6 Isotopes

14.7 Example: Use of radioactive and stable isotopes in a sand aquifer at Hat Head, NSW

14.8 Example: The use of stable isotopes of water from the Maules Creek Catchment in northern NSW

14.9 Carbon isotopes

14.10 Chlorine-36

15 Well hydraulics, radial flow modelling and single well tests

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Review of definitions

15.3 Groundwater flow equations

15.4 Analytical solution methods to the radial flow equation

15.5 Numerical Solutions to the Radial Flow Equation

15.6 Radial Flow Model Results

15.7 Non-Darcy flow close to an abstraction well

15.8 Specific capacity

15.9 Interpretation of step-test data

A The international system of units – SI

About the Author

Ian Acworth graduated with a degree in Earth Sciences from Leeds University in the UK and followed up with a Master’s in Hydrogeology and a PhD in Groundwater from Birmingham University. Ian has spent 45 years as a practicing hydrogeologist with 15 years as a consultant and the remainder at the University of New South Wales Australia, where he has taught and researched groundwater.

Ian established the Connected Waters Initiative Research Centre at the University in 2006 and was a team leader in the National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training. During his career he has maintained a major focus on the use of field techniques in the investigation of groundwater. He has held patents in the use of geophysical techniques applied to groundwater investigation and has published widely in the area with many well cited papers. Ian has been an active member of IAH and served on the IAH Council as a Vice President representing Australia and the Pacific for 8 years. He retired in 2015 but is still actively engaged in research at UNSW where is appointed as an Emeritus Professor. In 2015 he received the President’s award for contributions to Hydrogeology.

About the Series

IAH - International Contributions to Hydrogeology

The International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) serves scientists, engineers and other professionals working in the field of groundwater resource planning, management and protection. IAH has two book series which are produced under the imprint of CRC Press in the Netherlands, part of the Taylor and Francis Group. IAH books have the common purpose of spreading the science and knowledge of hydrogeology and are products arising from IAH’s congresses and meetings, its commissions and networks, as well as a variety of other sources. Information is gathered from highly respected sources and include case studies, regional descriptions, analyses of sub-disciplines and outputs from major international programmes.

International Contributions to Hydrogeology
The second series, International Contributions to Hydrogeology, the ‘blue books’, includes monographs on sub-disciplines of hydrogeology as well as outlets for major international investigatory programmes and collections of papers within a broad theme of international interest.

Selected Papers
The first series is the Selected Papers, often referred to as the ‘green books’. These are collections of papers derived from Congress and other meetings which normally, but not always, were sponsored by IAH. They may also be a collection of papers derived from a programme of investigation that again need not necessarily have enjoyed direct IAH involvement.

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI019000
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / General
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC000000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / General
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply