Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Ion Beam Analysis

Fundamentals and Applications, 1st Edition

By Michael Nastasi, James W. Mayer, Yongqiang Wang

CRC Press

472 pages | 178 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2014-08-27
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Description

Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications explains the basic characteristics of ion beams as applied to the analysis of materials, as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) of art/archaeological objects. It focuses on the fundamentals and applications of ion beam methods of materials characterization.

The book explains how ions interact with solids and describes what information can be gained. It starts by covering the fundamentals of ion beam analysis, including kinematics, ion stopping, Rutherford backscattering, channeling, elastic recoil detection, particle induced x-ray emission, and nuclear reaction analysis. The second part turns to applications, looking at the broad range of potential uses in thin film reactions, ion implantation, nuclear energy, biology, and art/archaeology.

  • Examines classical collision theory
  • Details the fundamentals of five specific ion beam analysis techniques
  • Illustrates specific applications, including biomedicine and thin film analysis
  • Provides examples of ion beam analysis in traditional and emerging research fields

Supplying readers with the means to understand the benefits and limitations of IBA, the book offers practical information that users can immediately apply to their own work. It covers the broad range of current and emerging applications in materials science, physics, art, archaeology, and biology. It also includes a chapter on computer applications of IBA.

Reviews

This book will be immensely useful both as a reference and textbook, as it presents the fundamentals, all primary ion beam analysis techniques, and many specific applications together in one place. It should prove to be immensely useful as a reference or textbook for any scientist or student of the field.

—Floyd Del McDaniel, Professor of Physics and Materials Science & Engineering, Director of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, University of North Texas

This is a must-have ion beam analysis textbook or reference handbook … . It covers all aspects of ion beam fundamentals and important applications with tables, charts, and excellent examples. … homework problems are also given at the end of each chapter … this book could be used as a textbook for a graduate course on ion beam science and technology.

—Wei-Kan Chu, Research Director and Distinguished University Professor of Physics, The University of Houston

The approach the authors have taken, with a good balance between fundamentals and applications, will make their book especially useful for students entering graduate studies or starting senior undergraduate projects.

—J.L. (Iain) Campbell, Professor Emeritus, Department of Physics, University of Guelph

An indispensable book for everyone, student or expert, dealing with ion beam analysis … Highly recommended.

—Andrzej Turos, Professor and Head of Department of Microstructural Research, University of Warsaw

This is a must-have book for those embarking on the use of ion beams for materials analysis. It brings together all the essential knowledge in a convenient, compact, and up-to-date way.

—S.T. Picraux, Chief Scientist, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory

… a coherent presentation of the basics of nuclear reactions and scattering along with a comprehensive presentation on how MeV ion beams are used for analysis. Each chapter ends with a set of problems and useful references. This book will be useful as a text for those teaching a course on ion-solid interactions and as a reference for practitioners.

—William A. Lanford, Professor of Physics, University at Albany

The book Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications will be an important addition to the libraries of scientists and engineers who are already practitioners of these important techniques, but its main utility will be for students, in a wide spectrum of fields, whose research could potentially benefit from IBA or those who are just starting to utilize IBA.

—Barney L. Doyle, Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff, Sandia National Laboratories

Table of Contents

Section I—Fundamentals

Overview

Introduction

Atomic and Planar Densities

Energy and Particles

The Bohr Velocity and Radius

Suggested Reading

Kinematics

Kinematics of Elastic Collisions

Classical Two-Particle Scattering

The Classical Scattering Integral

References

Suggested Reading

Cross Section

Introduction

Angular Differential Scattering Cross Section

Rutherford Differential Cross Section

Non-Rutherford Cross Sections

References

Suggested Reading

Ion Stopping

Introduction

The Energy-Loss Process

Stopping Cross Section

Electronic Stopping

Effective Charge of Moving Ions

High-Energy Electronic Energy Loss

Stopping Calculations Using SRIM

Energy Loss in Compounds—Bragg’s Rule

Electronic Energy Straggling

Appendix: The Classical Impulse Approximation to the Scattering Integral

References

Suggested Reading

Backscattering Spectrometry

Introduction

Experimental Setup

Energy Loss and Depth Scale

Surface Energy and Mean Energy Approximation

Compound Targets

Scattering Cross Section and the Shape of the Backscattering Spectrum

Composition and Depth Profiles

Examples

Thin Film Reaction Analysis

Ion Implantation

High-Energy Backscattering and the Elastic Resonance of 8.8 MeV He with 16O

References

Suggested Reading

Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis

Introduction

ERD Kinematics

Recoil Particle Identification

Recoil Cross Sections

Deviations from the Rutherford Recoil Cross Sections

Conventional Range-Foil ERD

Mass Resolution

Energy Resolution

Energy Straggling

Geometrical Energy Spread (or Broadening)

Multiple Scattering

Depth Resolution

Ideal Recoil Energy Spectrum

Surface Spectrum Height of a Thick Target

Recoil Yield from a Thin Target

Actual Recoil Energy Spectrum

Shape of Recoil Energy Spectrum

ERD Sensitivity

Quantification of ERD

Selected Applications

Diffusion of Hydrogen in Polystyrene

Measurement of Hydrogen Isotopes by ΔE-E ERD

Multielement Analysis with a Heavy Ion TOF-ERD

Summary

References

Suggested Reading

Nuclear Reaction Analysis

Introduction

Compound Nucleus Process

Direct Interaction Process

Energetics and Kinematics

Energetics

Kinematics

Classification of Nuclear Reactions

Elastic Scattering

Inelastic Scattering

Rearrangement Collisions

Radiative Capture

Nuclear Energy Levels and Nuclear Decays

Nuclear Reaction Cross Section

Nuclear Reaction Analysis

Particle Energy Spectrum Analysis

Reaction Yield Distribution Method

References

Suggested Reading

Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis

Introduction

Fundamentals

Energies of X-Ray Lines: The Basis for Element Identification

X-Ray Line Intensities: The Basis for Concentration Quantification

Quantitative Analysis

Intensity–Concentration Relationship

Background Radiation

Spectrum Fitting

PIXE System Calibration

Accuracy of PIXE Analysis

PIXE Detection Limits

Instrumentation for PIXE Analysis

Ion Beam Characteristics

X-Ray Detection

X-Ray Absorbing Filters

Summary

References

Suggested reading

Ion Channeling

Introduction

Channeling in Single Crystals

Transverse Energy and Critical Angle for Channeling

Minimum Yield

Energy Loss

Dechanneling by Defects

Point Defects

Dislocation Lines

Defect Scattering

Defect Scattering Factor

Dechanneling and Direct Scattering

References

Suggested Reading

Section II—Applications

Thin Film Depth Profiling; Chris Jeynes and Richard L. Thompson

Introduction

Examples of Obtaining Elemental Diffusion Profiles

Fickian Diffusion

ComplexitiEs: Labelling

Nuclear Waste

Defluorination: Ambiguity

Real Time measurements

Artificial neural Networks

Example of an Optical Multilayer

Example of Intermixing Analysis

Example of Corrosion Analysis

Example of 3D Analysis for Geology

Conclusions

References

Defects Measurements of a Crystalline Solid; Lin Shao

Introduction

Ion Implantation

Ion Channeling

Finding Channel Axes

Channel-Energy Conversion

Energy-Depth Conversion

Separation of Dechanneling Background

Line Approximation

Iteration Procedure

Double Iteration Procedure

Determination of Impurity Displacements

Determination of Strain in a Heterogeneous Structure

Appendix: QuickBasic Program for Double Iterative Procedure to Extract Defect Profile

References

Suggested Reading

Nuclear Energy Research Applications; Yongqiang Wang and Amit Misra

Introduction

Stability of Helium Ion-Implanted Metallic Multilayers

The Effect of Interface Atomic Structure on He Bubble Formation at fcc–bcc Interfaces

Quantification of 13C/12C to Help Diagnose the Nuclear Implosion Process in Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

References

Art and Archaeology Applications; Thomas Calligaro and Jean-Claude Dran

Role of IBA in Cultural Heritage Studies

Major Art and Archaeology Issues

Object Creation

Conservation State Diagnosis

Authentication of Heritage Items

Ion Beam Analysis of Cultural Heritage Relics

Specificity of Cultural Heritage Targets

Suitability of IBA Techniques

Nondamaging Character

Noninvasive IBA Implementation: External Beam

Multielemental, Quantitative, and Highly Sensitive Analysis: PIXE Technique

Measurement of Light Elements

Depth Profiling: RBS, NRA, ERDA

Multiscale IBA Chemical Imaging of Heterogeneous Artifacts

Comparison with Competing Techniques

Other Specific Developments of IBA Techniques to Study Heritage Materials

Depth Profiling with PIXE and PIGE

Better Sensitivity Than PIXE: PIXEInduced XRF

In Situ IBA with External Beam in Reaction Cells

Examples

Nanoparticle Luster Decoration on Ceramics and Metal Gildings: Combined RBS Profiling and PIXE Bulk Analysis

Hydration Dating of Archeological Quartz: Profiling Hydrogen Diffusion Using ERDA with External Beam

Micromapping of Mineral Phases in Lapis Lazuli Carvings

Large-Scale Chemical Imaging of Renaissance Painted Masterworks

Future Directions and New Challenges

Acknowledgments

Appendix

References

Biomedical Applications; Harry J. Whitlow and Min-Qin Ren

Introduction

The Constitution of Biological Matter

Types of IBA Measurements

Sample Preparation

Gross Samples

Critical-Point Drying of Cultured Cells

Tissue Sectioning

Supporting Films

Broad Beam Methods

Broad Beam Studies of Biointerface Interactions

PIXE Total Elemental Composition Analysis in Biomedicine

Calibration of PIXE Data

Instrument and Method Detection Limits

RBS and ERDA in Biomedicine

PIGE in Biomedicine

Microbeam Imaging of Cells and Tissues

Micro-PIXE and –PIGE

Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy

Ionluminescence Microscopy

Emerging IBA Methods in Biomedicine

Analysis of Ion Irradiation Effects in Cells

Ion Beam Fabrication of Microanalytical Tools

Acknowledgments

References

IBA Software; Nuno P. Barradas, Matej Mayer, Miguel A. Reis, and François Schiettekatte

A Brief Introduction to IBA Data Analysis

Manual Data Analysis

Software: What Can It Do for You?

The First Generation of Software—RUMP and Others

Enabling Tools—SRIM, WDEPTH, and SigmaCalc/IBANDL

Currently Popular Software—SIMNRA, NDF

Monte Carlo: A "Brute Force" Approach

PIXE

Examples

IAEA Intercomparison Exercise: NDF

EBS: SIMNRA

NRA: SIMNRA

Monte Carlo Calculations: Corteo

PIXE: NDF

Software Handling of Channeling Spectra

References

Appendices:

Crystallography

Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) Kinematic Factors

Rutherford Cross Sections for 1 MeV 1H and 4He Ion Beams

Proton-Induced Gamma Emissions from Light Elements (3 ≤ Z ≤ 26)

Characteristic X-Ray Energies and Relative Intensities

Useful Schematic Illustrations in Ion Channeling Analysis

Data Analysis Software for Ion Beam Analysis

Physical Constants, Combinations, and Conversions

Index

About the Authors

Michael Nastasi is director of the Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research (NCESR) and Elmer Koch Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Prior to this appointment he was director of the Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Frontier Research Center on Materials at Irradiation and Mechanical Extremes and nanoelectronics and mechanics thrust leader at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT). He served as team leader for the Nanoscience and Ion–Solid Interaction Team and as fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He earned his PhD in materials science and engineering at Cornell University. Dr. Nastasi is an elected fellow of the American Physical Society (APS) and the Materials Research Society (MRS).

James W. Mayer (1930–2013), was a pioneer in the application of ion beam techniques for materials analysis. He received his PhD from Purdue University, followed by appointments at California Institute of Technology (1967–1980) and Cornell University (1980-1992), as Francis Norwood Bard Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and director of the Microscience and Technology Program. He was appointed to the faculty at Arizona State University (ASU) in 1992, where he became Regents’ Professor and P.V. Galvin Professor of Science and Engineering, as well as director of the Center for Solid State Science until his retirement. His research contributions were in many areas of solid-state engineering, especially ion implantation and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Among his many accolades, Dr. Mayer was recipient of the Materials Research Society’s Von Hippel Award, a fellow of the American Physical Society and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, and an elected member of the National Academy of Engineering.

Yongqiang Wang is the team leader of the Ion Beam Materials Laboratory (IBML) in Los Alamos National Laboratory. Dr. Wang has worked in the field of ion beam applications in materials research for more than 25 years. Over the years, he has used and maintained a variety of electrostatic accelerators and implanters for research and education. He is a co-author of nearly 200 peer-reviewed publications, three invited book chapters, two US patents, and the Handbook on Modern Ion Beam Materials Analysis (2nd edition). He is a member of the International Conference Committee for Ion Beam Analysis. He was a co-chair of the 21st International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis in Seattle, Washington, in June 2013. He currently serves as a co-chair of the Biennial International Conference on Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry (CAARI).

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI051000
SCIENCE / Nuclear Physics
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science