Ion Mobility Spectrometry: 3rd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Ion Mobility Spectrometry

3rd Edition

By G.A. Eiceman, Z. Karpas, Herbert H. Hill, Jr.

CRC Press

444 pages | 155 B/W Illus.

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Description

Since the turn of the twenty-first century, applications of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) have diversified, expanding their utility in the military and security spheres and entering the realms of clinical practice and pharmaceutical exploration. Updated and expanded, the third edition of Ion Mobility Spectrometry begins with a comprehensive discussion of the fundamental theory and practice of IMS. Divided into four sections—Overview, Technology, Fundamentals, and Applications—the authors treat innovations and advances in all aspects of IMS in a fresh, thorough, and revised format.

Features:

  • Introduces the definitions, theory, and practice of IMS and summarizes its history from the beginnings of the study of ions to present commercial and scholarly activities
  • Presents the technology of IMS from a measurement perspective—covering inlet through ion formation, ion injection, electric fields, drift tube structures, and detectors
  • Covers the end results of measurement, the mobility spectrum, and the transformative trend of ion mobility: mass spectrometry
  • Discusses the influence on the experimental parameters on the mobility of ions

Mobility-based methods are no longer restricted to volatile substances and indeed the many benefits of this technology—simplicity, convenience, and the low cost of technology—have become recognized as meritorious in a wide range of uses. This is also true for the advantages of measurements—high speed, distinctive spectral features, and operation in ambient pressure with thermalized ions. Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Third Edition serves specialists in the field of IMS who are interested in the potential of recent developments and researchers, engineers, and students who want a comprehensive overview of this technology.

Reviews

"… an excellent book and essential for every researcher and engineer working in the field of ion mobility. The authors, who are leading experts in IMS technology, provide an excellent overview of the current state of science and technology related to IMS and the most recent developments in this field. … well written and easily understandable, with a well-balanced mix of practice-oriented information and theoretical background knowledge."

—Thomas Mayer, Department of Monitoring and Exploration Technologies, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germany, from International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry, December 2014

Praise for the Previous Edition

"… The second edition of this book provides a timely update to the fundamental theory, advancements in instrumentation, and the development of new applications of IMS…. The book accomplishes the objectives outlined by the authors… The CD [is] a useful and practical addition to this book… Overall, this book should be useful to experts in IMS research as well as those new to the technology. As a practical book, it offers a well-balanced combination of theory and application… I highly recommend it to anyone interested in IMS."

—Robert G. Ewing, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, in JACS, Vol. 128, 2006

Table of Contents

Introduction to Ion Mobility Spectrometry

Background

Methods of Ion Mobility Spectrometry

Emerging Patterns in the Development of Ion Mobility Methods Summary Comments

History of Ion Mobility Spectrometry

Introduction

The Formative Years of Discovery (1895 to 1960)

Ion Mobility Spectrometry for Chemical Measurements (1960 to 1990)

Mobility Methods beyond Military and Security Venues (1990 to 2000)

Commercial Production of Mobility-Based Analyzers (2000 to Present)

The Society for Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Journal

Sample Introduction Methods

Introduction

Vapor Samples

Semi-volatile Samples

Aqueous Samples

Solid Samples

Summary

Ion Sources

Introduction

Radioactivity: Nickel, Americium, and Tritium

Corona Discharges

Photo-ionization: Discharge Lamps and Lasers

Electrospray Ionization and Its Derivatives

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization

Surface Ionization Sources

Flames

Plasma-Based Ion Sources

Glow Discharge Ion Source

Other Ion Sources

Summary

Appendix

Ion Injection and Pulsed Sources

Introduction

Operation and Structures of Ion Shutters

Models and Modes of Operation

Ion Injection to Drift Regions without Wire-Based Ion Shutters

Mobility Methods with Continuous Flow of Ions into the Drift Region

Summary and Conclusions

Drift Tubes in Ion Mobility Spectrometry

Introduction

Traditional Drift Tubes with Stacked-Ring Designs

High Field Asymmetric Drift Tubes

Aspirator Drift Tubes

Traveling Wave Drift Tubes

Tandem Mobility Spectrometers

Other Drift Tube Designs

Selection of Materials

Summary and Conclusions

Ion Detectors

Introduction

Ambient Detection of Mobility-Separated Ions

Low-Pressure Detection of Mobility-Separated Ions

Summary

The Ion Mobility Spectrum

Introduction

Mobility, Electric Field, and Pressure

Ion Mobility Spectra

IMS as a Separation Device

Quantitative Aspects to Response

Summary

Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry

Combining Mobility with Mass

Low-Pressure Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry Atmospheric Pressure Drift Tube Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Differential Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry

Aspiration Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry

Ion Mobility MS and the Future

Ion Characterization and Separation: Mobility of Gas Phase Ions in Electric Fields

Introduction

Motion of Slow Ions in Gases

Models for Ion-Neutral Interactions

Linear Ion Mobility Spectrometers: Models and Experimental Evidence

Differential Mobility Spectrometer and the Dependence of Ion Mobility on the Electric Field Strength

Traveling Wave IMS

Summary

Control and Effects of Experimental Parameters

Introduction

Chemical Composition of the Support Gas Atmosphere

Moisture and Temperature of the Supporting Gas Atmosphere

Effects of Pressure

Effects of Field Strength and Ion Residence Time

Effects of Analyte Concentration

Summary

Detection of Explosives by IMS

General Comments on Detection of Explosives

The Chemistry Underlying Detection of Explosives by IMS

Sampling and Pre-concentration Techniques for Detection of Explosives

Measurement with Handheld Devices, Portable Instruments, and Portals

Research and Operational Experience

Walk-Through Portals and Systems for Luggage Screening

Homemade and Alternate Explosives

Standards for Calibration of Explosive Detectors

Database for Explosives

Chemical Weapons

Introduction and General Comments on Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents

The Ion Chemistry Underlying Detection of Chemical Weapons

Sampling and Pre-concentration Techniques

Research, Operational Experience, and Historical Perspective of Instrumentation

State-of-the-Art Commercial Instruments, Standards, and Calibration

Summary

Drugs of Abuse

Introduction and General Comments on Detection of Drugs

The Ion Chemistry Underlying Detection of Drugs

Sampling and Pre-concentration Techniques

Research, Operational Experience, and Instrumentation

Standards and Calibration

Database for Drugs

Pharmaceuticals

Introduction

Compound Identification

Formulation Validation

Cleaning Validation

Reaction Monitoring

Monitoring Biological Samples

Summary and Conclusion

Industrial Applications

Introduction

Industrial Processes

Industrial Feedstock or Products

Food Production

Conclusions

Environmental Monitoring

Introduction

Airborne Vapors

Water

Soil

Conclusions

Biological and Medical Applications of IMS

Introduction and General Comments on Biological and Medical Applications

Medical Diagnostics Using IMS

Food Freshness, Molds, and Odor Detection

Macromolecules: Biomolecules and Biopolymers

Detection and Determination of Bacteria

Other Biological Applications

Conclusion

Current Assessments and Future Developments in Ion Mobility Spectrometry

State of the Science and Technology of IMS

Next Generation in Ion Mobility Methods

Directions for IMS

Final Thoughts

About the Authors

G.A. Eiceman is a professor at New Mexico University in Las Cruces.

Z. Karpas is an associate at the Nuclear Research Center in Beer-Shev, Israel.

Herbert H. Hill is a professor at Washington State University in Pullman.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013010
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Analytic
SCI043000
SCIENCE / Research & Methodology