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Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry of Light Gas-Forming Elements




ISBN 9781466594074
Published July 25, 2014 by CRC Press
244 Pages - 99 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry of Light Gas-Forming Elements explores different methods of isotope analysis, including spark, secondary ion, laser, glow discharge, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. It explains how to evaluate the isotopic composition of light elements (H, C, N, O) in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples of organic and inorganic substances, as well as:

  • Presents a universal, economical, simple, and rapid technique for sample preparation of organic substances to measure the isotopic composition of carbon
  • Describes how to determine microbial mineralization of organic matter in soil and the effect of exogenous substrates on environmental sustainability
  • Examines use of the isotopic composition of n-alkanes from continental vegetation to study the paleoclimate and plant physiology
  • Proposes a systematic approach to identifying tobacco areas of origin and tobacco products based on data from the isotopic composition of light elements
  • Discusses ways to detect doping drugs and suggests results assessment criteria based on determining reference intervals for endogenous markers
  • Reviews methods of release of gases from inclusions of rocks and minerals for further implementation of isotope mass spectrometric analysis
  • Considers use of optical isotope analyzers for determining the isotopic composition of carbon in CO2 and of hydrogen and oxygen in water

Providing a complete picture of the latest advancements in the field, Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry of Light Gas-Forming Elements aids readers from a variety of disciplines in identifying the fundamental processes in biological, ecological, and geological systems and in revealing the subtle features of many physicochemical processes and chemical transformations.

Table of Contents

Preface
Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Devices, Methods, and Applications
V.S. Sevastyanov
General Characteristics of Mass Spectrometric Methods for the Determination of Isotopic Composition of Light Elements
Improvement of Equipment for the Determination Isotope Ratios of Light Elements
Mass Spectrometric Methods for Determining the Isotopic Composition of Light Elements
Metrological Characteristics of Mass Spectrometry of Isotope Ratios
The Effect of the Strength of the Analytical Signal on the Results of Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Light Elements
Study of the Completeness of Combustion of Difficult to Oxidise Compounds
Developing a New Method of Sample Preparation Based on Solid Electrolytes for Isotope Mass Spectrometric Analysis
The Electrochemical Decomposition of Water using a Solid Electrolyte Based on Zirconium Dioxide to Determine the Isotopic Composition of Hydrogen
The Distribution of the Isotopes of Light Elements in Various Objects
Finding the Source of Drugs and Explosives
The Effects of Isotope Fractionation and Accompanying Organic Synthesis
Isotope Effects in Carbonaceous Chondrites
Determination of the Isotopic Composition of Hydrogen and Oxygen of Water and Isotope Effects during Evaporation
The Distribution of Carbon Isotopes in Complex Organic Compounds of Biological Origin (Oil and Hydrocarbon Gases)
Determination of the Isotopic Composition of Carbon in the Collagen of Bones of Ancient Tombs
Conclusions
References
Universal Method for Preparation of Liquid, Solid, and Gaseous Samples for Determining the Isotopic Composition of Carbon
T.A. Velivetskaya, A. Ignat'ev, and S. Kiyashko
Introduction
The Experimental Part
Equipment and Materials
Combustion of Solid and Low-Volatility Liquid Samples to Determine the Isotopic Composition of Carbon
Combustion of Volatile Liquids to Determine Carbon Isotopic Composition
Combustion of Methane for the Determination of the Isotopic Composition of Carbon
Results and Discussion
Conclusions
Literature
Using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry for Assessing the Metabolic Potential of Soil Microbiota
A.M. Zyakun and O. Dilly
Introduction
Methods of Analysis of Microbial Activity in Soil
Microbiological Method
Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry in the Study of Substrate-Induced Respiration (SIR)
Kinetics of CO2 Production during Substrate-Induced Respiration
Characteristics of Carbon Isotopic Composition of Microbial Products
Amount of Metabolic Carbon Dioxide and Characterization of Its Origin in the Soil
Using the 13C/12C Ratios to Characterize the Activity of the Microbiota in Arable Soils
Analyzed Soil Samples
Mineralization of SOM and Exogenous Glucose
Priming Effect (PE) of Glucose
Estimate of the Duration of the Effect of the Exogenous Substrate on the Microbiota
Conclusion
References
Study of the Isotopic Composition of Normal Alkanes of Continental Plants
N.A. Pedentchouk
Introduction
The Experimental Part
General Provisions
Methodological Features of Analysis
Results and Discussion
Conclusion
Literature
Using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectroscopy for Analysis of Tobacco
A.B. Uryupin
Literature
Using Isotope Mass Ratio Spectrometry of Carbon in Doping Control
T. Sobolevski, I.S. Prasolov, and G.M. Rodchenkov
Introduction
The Metabolism of Steroid Hormones
The Experimental Part
Equipment
Reagents and Materials
Sample Preparation
Results and Discussion
Literature
Isolation Methods in Isotope Geochemistry of Noble Gases
A.I. Buikin
Introduction
Stepwise Annealing
Release of Gases by Heating with a Laser Beam
The Stratified Oxidation Method
Stepwise Fragmentation
Conclusion
Literature
Using Laser Spectroscopy for Measuring the Ratios of Stable Isotopes
V.S. Sevastyanov
Introduction
Absorption Spectroscopy
Infrared Spectroscopy with Fourier Transform
Non-Dispersive Absorption Spectroscopy
Laser Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy
Laser On-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy
New Methods and Results
Conclusions
Literature
Index

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Editor(s)

Biography

V.S. Sevastyanov is vice head of the Department of Carbon Geochemistry at his Ph.D and big doctorate alma mater, the Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow. He also holds two masters degrees—one from Lomonosov Moscow State University and one from the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. A widely published member of the Russian Mass Spectrometry Society and the ESIR, he has served as a senior scientist at several prestigious Russian laboratories. His current research interests include isotope ratio mass spectrometry, stable isotopic geochemistry and archeology, organic geochemistry, isotopic analysis of oil and gases, forensic science, and food analysis.