Kinetics in Materials Science and Engineering: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Kinetics in Materials Science and Engineering

1st Edition

By Dennis W. Readey

CRC Press

612 pages | 349 B/W Illus.

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Description

"A pedagogical gem…. Professor Readey replaces ‘black-box’ explanations with detailed, insightful derivations. A wealth of practical application examples and exercise problems complement the exhaustive coverage of kinetics for all material classes." –Prof. Rainer Hebert, University of Connecticut

"Prof. Readey gives a grand tour of the kinetics of materials suitable for experimentalists and modellers…. In an easy-to-read and entertaining style, this book leads the reader to fundamental, model-based understanding of kinetic processes critical to development, fabrication and application of commercially-important soft (polymers, biomaterials), hard (ceramics, metals) and composite materials. It is a must-have for anyone who really wants to understand how to make materials and how they will behave in service." --Prof. Bill Lee, Imperial College London, Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering

"A much needed text filing the gap between an introductory course in materials science and advanced materials-specific kinetics courses. Ideal for the undergraduate interested in an in-depth study of kinetics in materials." –Prof. Mark E. Eberhart, Colorado School of Mines

This book provides an in-depth introduction to the most important kinetic concepts in materials science, engineering, and processing. All types of materials are addressed, including metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, biomaterials, and composites. The expert author with decades of teaching and practical experience gives a lively and accessible overview, explaining the principles that determine how long it takes to change material properties and make new and better materials. The chapters cover a broad range of topics extending from the heat treatment of steels, the processing of silicon integrated microchips, and the production of cement, to the movement of drugs through the human body. The author explicitly avoids "black box" equations, providing derivations with clear explanations.

Reviews

"Finally a kinetics textbook that covers all materials groups, polymers, metals, and ceramics in depth! Dr. Readey has created a marvel with quantitative resources and highly relevant stories explaining the science and showing the relevance in today’s society. The book makes it easy to gain knowledge in kinetics. The problems provided enhance the active learning of the student. All materials students should read this book at some point in their studies. … I will definitely recommend it to my students and colleagues."

—Wolfgang Sigmund, Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida

"Professor Readey gives a grand tour of the kinetics of materials suitable for experimentalists and modellers…. In an easy-to-read and entertaining style, this book leads the reader to fundamental, model-based understanding of kinetic processes critical to development, fabrication and application of commercially-important soft (polymers, biomaterials), hard (ceramics, metals) and composite materials. It is a must-have for anyone who really wants to understand how to make materials and how they will behave in service."

—Professor Bill Lee, Imperial College London, Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering

"A pedagogical gem…. Professor Readey replaces ‘black-box’ explanations with detailed, insightful derivations. A wealth of practical application examples and exercise problems complement the exhaustive coverage of kinetics for all material classes. A modern textbook that will undoubtedly earn appreciation from instructors and students alike."

—Prof. Rainer Hebert, University of Connecticut

"a comprehensive text…. with clear illustrations, examples and brief historical notes"

—Mahadevan Khantha, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania

"This book captures the essential importance of kinetics across the field of materials science. The fundamental principles and appropriate applications are well presented."

—Robert L. Opila, Professor, University of Delaware

"A much needed text filing the gap between an introductory course in materials science and advanced materials-specific kinetics courses. Ideal for the undergraduate interested in an in-depth study of kinetics in materials."

—Mark E. Eberhart, Professor, Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines

"presents an in-depth, readily accessible treatment of the fundamentals to students of materials science and engineering. It will be a valuable primary or supplementary textbook for the standard materials kinetics course."

—Jeffrey M. Rickman, Professor, Lehigh University

"This book fills a long-standing gap in the education and training of undergraduate MSE students in the field of time-dependent phenomena. The clarity of the examples coupled with the immediacy of the notation will grant to this text the status of ‘must-have’ reference book for any professional in the field."

—Prof. Valter Sergo, Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste

"Readey's Kinetics in Materials Science and Engineering is true to its name, treating all materials classes and providing examples for each. He does this very effectively while highlighting the contrasts between diffusion-controlled processes in hard materials and chemical reactions in soft materials."

—Katherine T. Faber, Simon Ramo Professor of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology

"It was a pleasure to read this book. It’s refreshing to see a textbook that encompasses all classes of materials with a focus on areas of commonality, and written in a manner that students can follow on their own.

—Sheikh A. Akbar, Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University

"This textbook goes well beyond related books on kinetics by its educational quality, allowing the student to follow the content by self-instruction; a difficult task given the complexity and breadth of the overall topic remarkably well mastered by Prof. Readey."

—Hans-Joachim Kleebe, Professor and Executive Director, Institute of Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt

"In this work, students will find most of the information necessary to understand the research in this wavelength regime. The early chapters focus on astronomical objects and phenomena often studied using THz telescopes, which include the different phases of the interstellar medium (ISM) and star-forming regions found in the ISM. Walker first develops the radiative transfer framework for understanding how interstellar gas clouds absorb and emit light. He then leads readers through specific examples to interpret the THz radiation obtained from different astronomical objects. The latter half of the book focuses on the technology used in THz astronomy. Significant detail is provided about the engineering of THz detectors, which is combined with how these detectors work in practice with both single-dish and interferometer telescopes. The sample problems in each chapter are suitable for upper-level undergraduate or graduate level courses in astronomical techniques."

Choice Reviews (Chris Palma, Pennsylvania State University)

"The book provides every derivation and brings out the kinetic processes in materials science and engineering in an understandable way. As a teacher who has taught and is teaching courses in materials science and engineering and who has performed research in the area of electrochemical kinetics, I find this book extraordinary in all respects in giving in-depth mathematical derivations…. This is an excellent book…. I strongly recommend it"

—MRS Bulletin (Sep 2017)

Table of Contents

Introduction to Kinetics

Kinetics and Materials Science and Engineering

Materials Science and Engineering

Microstructure

History of Materials Science and Engineering as a Discipline

Impact of Materials Science and Engineering

This Book

Reaction Kinetics

Introduction to Kinetic Processes in Materials

Material Transport and Reaction Rates

Dissolution of NaCl and Al2O3 Contrasting Diffusion and Reaction Control

Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reactions

Homogeneous Reaction Rates

Reaction Order

Zero Order Reaction

First Order Reaction

Example of First Order Reaction: COCl2 Decomposition

Radioactive Decay and Related Nuclear Reactions

Radiocarbon Dating

Importance of First Order Reactions in Materials

More Complex Reactions

Pseudo First Order Reactions

Second Order Reactions

Reactions that Reach Equilibrium

Parallel Reactions

Series Reactions

Higher Order Reactions

Complexity of Real Reactions: HI and H2O formation

Appendix: Two Reactions in Series

Temperature Dependence of the Reaction Rate Constant

Arrhenius Equation: k = k0 exp(-Q/RT)

Hindenburg Disaster

Adiabatic Flame Temperature

Combustion Synthesis

Barometric Formula

Boltzmann Distribution

Activated State

Catalysts: Pt, Ziegler-Natta

Heterogeneous Reactions: Gas-Solid

Passive Corrosion: SiO2

Active Corrosion: Si, Cr, SiC

Materials Processes: Kroll Process, Siemens Process, Optical Fibers, and Halogen Lamps

Chemical Vapor Deposition of Si: Deposition Processes and Epitaxy

Deposition of Silicon from Trichlorosilane

Active Gas Corrosion of Silicon

Carbon-Carbon Composites: Chemical Vapor Infiltration and Shuttle Columbia Accident

Halogen Lamps

Common Phenomena: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Factors and Growth Rate

Phase Transformations

Thermodynamics of Surfaces and Its Effects

Surface Energy: Origin and Importance

Surface Reconstruction

Typical Values

Surface Energy and Curvature

Curvature and Vapor Pressure

Curvature and Solubility

Curvature and Phase Stability

Ostwald Ripening by Reaction

Freezing Point Depression

Specific Surface Area

Wetting

Interfacial Energies and Microstructure

Interfacial Energies and Morphology

Interfacial "Phases"

Capillary Rise

Surface Segregation

Phase Transitions

Thermodynamics

Rates of Phase Transitions

Transitions in One-Component Solids

Transitions in Multi-Component Systems

Qualitative: Nucleation and Growth and Spinodal Decomposition

Quantitative: Nucleation and Growth

Nucleation Rate

Overall Rate of Phase Transformations: Johnson-Mehl-Avrami Equation

Precipitation

Crystallization of Polyethylene

Heterogeneous Nucleation

Appendix A: Kinetic Energy and Speed of Gas Molecules

Appendix B: Boltzmann Distribution

Appendix C: Maxwell-Boltzmann Speed Distribution

Appendix D: Mean Molecular Speed in a Gas

Appendix E: Exact Result for Molecular Surface Collision Rate

Appendix F: Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm

Diffusion in Ideal Systems

Introduction to Diffusion

The Diffusion Process

Fick's First Law

Values of Diffusion Coefficients: D = 1/3 λv, Gases, Solids, and Liquids

Fick's Second Law: Conservation of Mass

Solving Diffusion Problems: Boundary and Initial Conditions

Infinite and Semi-Infinite Boundary Conditions

Finite Boundary Conditions

Steady-State versus Equilibrium

Measurement of Diffusion Coefficients

Appendix A: Fick's Second Law in Cylindrical Coordinates

Appendix B: Fick's Second Law in Spherical Coordinates

Atomistic Mechanisms of Diffusion in Solids and Gases

Introduction: Magnitudes and T-Dependencies, Why Not Liquids?

Energy Absorption by Atoms and Molecules and Gases and Solids

Interstitial Diffusion in Solids

Vacancy Diffusion in Solids

Statistical Mechanics Approach: Vacancy "Concentrations"

Regular Solution Approach

Quasi-Chemical Approach: "Point Defect Chemistry"

Point Defect Charges: Kröger-Vink Notation

Intrinsic Point Defects in Compounds: Schottky Defects

Implications of Vacancy Diffusion

Intrinsic Vacancy Diffusion

Surface and Grain Boundary Diffusion

Reptation in Polymers

Diffusion in Gases

Mean Free Path in a Gas

Gas Diffusion Coefficient

Chapman-Enskog Equation

Kundsen Diffusion

Appendix A: Vibrational Frequency

Appendix B: Vacancy Concentrations for Schottky Defects, NaCl, and Al2O3

Steady-State Diffusion

Gas Diffusion through Solids

Polymer Gas Separation Membranes

Gas Diffusion through Metals

Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates

Hydrogen Diffusion in a Glass Laser Fusion Sphere

Passive Oxidation of Silicon

Review of Glass Structure and Properties: Glass Transition and Shuttle Challenger Accident

CO2 Diffusion through a Biological Cell Wall

CVD of Si from SiHCl3 by Diffusion

CVD of Si with Both Reaction and Diffusion

Evaporation of a Water Drop

Dissolution of NaCl

Dissolution of Spheroidized Cementite in Austenite

Common Phenomena: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Factors and Growth Rate

Ostwald Ripening by Diffusion

Solutions to Fick's Second Law: Infinite and Semi-Infinite Boundary Conditions

Goal and Caveats

Solution with a Dimensionless Variable: x2 = 4 Dt

Semi-Infinite BCs: Diffusion of B into Si and Error Functions

Infinite BCs: Interdiffusion of Cu and Ni

Constant Surface Concentration: B into Si

Constant Surface Concentration: Decarburizing Transformer Steel

General Solution

Appendix A: Integrating e x2dx ∞ − −∞ ∫

Appendix B: Notes on the Error Function

Finite Boundary Conditions

Coring in a Cast Alloy

Drying a Cast Polymer Sheet: C(x,0) = C0 sin (πx/L)

Degassing Transformer Steel: C(x,0) = C0

Diffusion through a Polymer Membrane

Equilibration by Diffusion in a Cell

Interdiffusion of Finite Size Particles

General Approximation: Dt/L2 ≅ 1

Diffusion in Non-Ideal Systems

Generalized Diffusion: Fluxes and Forces

Flux of Moving Particles

Mobility and Forces: Stokes Law

Particle Size Measurement by Settling

Electrical Mobility

Absolute Mobility and Diffusion

Diffusion in Liquids: Stokes-Einstein Equation

Ionic Conductivity: Nernst-Einstein Equation

Non-Ideal Diffusion Processes

Interdiffusion in Isomorphous Systems: Metals

Intrinsic Diffusion Coefficient

Kirkendall Effect

Darken's Equations

Interdiffusion in Isomorphous Systems: Ionic Compounds

Non-Isomorphous Systems

Free Energy Gradients and Geometries

Oxidation of Metals

Calcining: Linear Model

Calcining: Jander Model

Calcining: Braunstein Model

Sintering

Grain Growth

Spinodal Decomposition Revisited

About the Author

Author

*Click here for a Q&A session with the author:

https://www.crcpress.com/go/9781138732469_authorQA

Dennis W. Readey is University Emeritus Professor of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines, where he served as the H. F. Coors Distinguished Professor of Ceramic Engineering and Director of the Colorado Center for Advanced Ceramics for seventeen years. Prior to that, he served as chairman of the Department of Ceramic Engineering at Ohio State University. He has been performing research on kinetic processes in materials for almost fifty years and teaching the subject for over thirty years. Before entering academia, he was a program manager in the Division of Physical Research of what is now the Department of Energy, where he was responsible for funding materials research in universities and national laboratories. Earlier, he was also group leader in the Research Division of the Raytheon Company and in the Materials Division of Argonne National Laboratory.

He had been active in the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) for a number of years representing TMS (The Mining, Minerals, and Materials Society) and served on several government committees including the Space Sciences Board and the National Materials Advisory Board of the National Academy of Sciences. He is a member of several professional societies and is a fellow of ASM International (formerly the American Society of Metals) and a fellow, distinguished life member, and Past-President of the American Ceramic Society.

Dr. Readey’s research has involved gaseous and aqueous corrosion of ceramics, the effect of atmospheres on sintering, the properties of porous ceramics, processing and properties of ceramic-metal composites, and the electronic properties of compounds, particularly transparent conducting oxides and microwave and infrared materials. He advised 29 Ph.D. and 42 M.S. degree theses, which generated about 120 publications and 13 patents. He received a B.S. degree in metallurgical engineering from the University of Notre Dame and a Sc.D. in ceramic engineering from MIT.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI077000
SCIENCE / Solid State Physics
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science