Opioids such as morphine, codeine, and oxycodone are extracts or analogs isolated from a single source: the opium poppy. For a long time, it was believed to be nature's only source of opioids. But it now appears that biological diversity has evolved an alternative source of opioid compounds-those derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa. This plan
Why Do Plants Contain Biologically Active Compounds? Short Overview of Mitragynines. Psychopharmacological Indole Alkaloids from Terrestrial Plants. Salvinorin A: Example of a Non-Alkaloidal Bioactive Opioid from a Plant Source. Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. Phytochemistry of Mitragyna speciosa. Chemistry of Mitragynines: A Brief Introduction . Chemistry of Mitragyna Compounds. Medicinal Chemistry Based on Mitragynine. Chemical Structures of Opioids. The Detection of Mitragynine and Its Analogs. The ADME of Mitragynine and Analogs. Analgesic Effects of Mitragynine and Analogs. Non-Analgesic CNS Effects. Other Opioid-Associated Endpoints. The Kratom Experience From Firsthand Reports. The Toxicology of Indole Alkaloids. Opioid-Induced Adverse Effects and Toxicity. Toxicology of Mitragynine and Analogs. The Use of Animal Models to Measure Tolerance, Dependence, and Abuse Potential. Kratom: The Epidemiology, Use and Abuse, Addiction Potential, and Legal Status.