Kratom and Other Mitragynines: The Chemistry and Pharmacology of Opioids from a Non-Opium Source, 1st Edition (e-Book) book cover

Kratom and Other Mitragynines

The Chemistry and Pharmacology of Opioids from a Non-Opium Source, 1st Edition

Edited by Robert B. Raffa

CRC Press

366 pages

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Hardback: 9781482225181
pub: 2014-10-29
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pub: 2014-10-29
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Opioids such as morphine, codeine, and oxycodone are extracts or analogs isolated from a single source: the opium poppy. For a long time, it was believed to be nature's only source of opioids. But it now appears that biological diversity has evolved an alternative source of opioid compounds-those derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa. This plan

Table of Contents

Why Do Plants Contain Biologically Active Compounds? Short Overview of Mitragynines. Psychopharmacological Indole Alkaloids from Terrestrial Plants. Salvinorin A: Example of a Non-Alkaloidal Bioactive Opioid from a Plant Source. Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. Phytochemistry of Mitragyna speciosa. Chemistry of Mitragynines: A Brief Introduction . Chemistry of Mitragyna Compounds. Medicinal Chemistry Based on Mitragynine. Chemical Structures of Opioids. The Detection of Mitragynine and Its Analogs. The ADME of Mitragynine and Analogs. Analgesic Effects of Mitragynine and Analogs. Non-Analgesic CNS Effects. Other Opioid-Associated Endpoints. The Kratom Experience From Firsthand Reports. The Toxicology of Indole Alkaloids. Opioid-Induced Adverse Effects and Toxicity. Toxicology of Mitragynine and Analogs. The Use of Animal Models to Measure Tolerance, Dependence, and Abuse Potential. Kratom: The Epidemiology, Use and Abuse, Addiction Potential, and Legal Status.

About the Editor

Robert B. Raffa is a professor of pharmacology in the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Temple University School of Pharmacy as well as a research professor in the Department of Pharmacology at Temple University School of Medicine. He has bachelor's degrees in chemical engineering and in physiological psychology, master's degrees in biomedical engineering and toxicology, and a doctorate in pharmacology. Dr. Raffa was co-leader for analgesics discovery at Johnson & Johnson and was pivotal in the elucidation of the mechanism of action and development of the analgesic drug tramadol (Ultram?). He is the co-holder of several patents, including the combination of tramadol plus acetaminophen (Ultracet?). He has published more than 280 scientific articles in peer-reviewd journals and is the co-author or editor of several books.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MEDICAL / Pharmacology
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General