LRFD Steel Design Using Advanced Analysis: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

LRFD Steel Design Using Advanced Analysis

1st Edition

By W.F. Chen, Seung-Eock Kim

CRC Press

464 pages

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Hardback: 9780849374326
pub: 1997-01-30
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LRFD Steel Design Using Advanced Analysis uses practical advanced analysis to produce almost identical member sizes to those of the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method. The main advantage of the advanced analysis method is that tedious and sometimes confusing separate member capacity checks encompassed by the AISC-LRFD specification equations are not necessary. Advanced analysis can sufficiently capture the limit state strength and stability of a structural system and its individual member directly.

While the use of elastic analysis is still the norm in engineering practice, a new generation of codes is expected to adopt the advanced analysis methodology in the near future, leading to significant savings in design effort. In recent years, the continued rapid development in computer hardware and software, coupled with an increased understanding of structural behavior, has made it feasible to adopt the advanced analysis techniques for design office use.

Drs. Chen and Kim, both experienced and respected engineers, contribute their expertise to this text, which is intended for both the graduate student and the practicing engineer. Previous knowledge of the subject is not necessary, but familiarity with methods of elastic analysis and conventional LRFD design is expected. The advanced analysis in the book is presented in a practical and simple manner, with attention directed to both analysis and design, emphasizing the direct use of the methods in engineering practice. This is a great introduction to an exciting new trend in structural engineering!

Table of Contents

Trend Toward Advanced Analysis


Design Formats

Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

Plastic Design (PD)

Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)

Advanced Analysis/Design

AISC-LRFD Design Method

Overview of AISC-LRFD Design Equations

Column Curves

Beam-Column Interaction Equations

Effective Length Factor

Moment Amplification Factor

Illustrative Example 1: Two-Bay Unbraced Frame

Illustrative Example 2: Leaning Column Frame

Semi-Rigid Frames

Methods of Advanced Analyses

Plastic-Zone Method

Quasi-Plastic Hinge Method

Elastic-Plastic Hinge Method

Notional-Load Plastic-Hinge Method

Refined-Plastic Hinge Method

Why Advanced Analysis


Practical Advanced Analysis


Key Factors Influencing Steel Frame Behavior

Gradual Yielding Associated with Flexure

Gradual Yielding Associated with Residual Stresses

Second-Order Effects

Geometric Imperfections

Connection Nonlinearity

Desirable Attributes for Practical Advanced Analysis

Second-Order Refined Plastic Hinge Analysis

Stability Functions Accounting for Second-Order Effect

Incremental Force-Displacement Relationship

Cross-Section Plastic Strength

Modification of Element Stiffness for the Presence of Plastic Hinges

Tangent Modulus Model Associated with Residual Stresses

Two-Surface Stiffness Degradation Model Associated with Flexure

Analysis of Semi-Rigid Frames

Types of Semi-Rigid Connections

Practical Modeling of Connections

Formulation of Initial Stiffness and Ultimate Moment Capacity

Empirical Equation for Shape Parameter

Practical Estimation of Three-Parameters Using Computer Program

Incremental Force-Displacement Relationship Accounting for Semi-Rigid Connections

Geometric Imperfection Methods

Explicit Imperfection Modeling Method

Equivalent Notional Load Method

Further Reduced Tangent Modulus Method

Numerical Implementation




Axially Loaded Columns

Isolated Beam-Columns

Mathematically Identical Columns

Rigidly Jointed Truss

Braced Frames

Sway Frames

Kanchanalai's Frames in Strong-Axis Bending

Kanchanalai's Frames in Weak-Axis Bending

Vogel's Frames

Special Frames

Braced Column with K-Factor Greater Than 1.0

Unbraced Frame with K-Factor Less Than 1.0

Semi-Rigid Frames

Displacement Characteristics

Comparison with Analytical Result

Comparison with Experimental Result


Analysis and Design Principles


Design Format


Dead Load

Live Load

Highway Live Load

Impact Load

Wind Load

Earthquake Load

Snow Load

Rain Load

Load Combinations

Resistance Factors

Establishment of Structural System

Low-Rise Structures

Multistory Structures

Forms of Bracing

Other Design Considerations

Section Application

Preliminary Member Sizing

Approximate Analysis

Approximate Member Sizing

Modeling of Structural Members

Number of Elements for a Beam Subjected to Distributed Transverse Loads

Number of Elements for a Column Without Geometric Imperfections

Number of Elements for a Column with Geometric Imperfections

Modeling of Geometric Imperfection

Explicit Imperfection Modeling

Equivalent Notional Loads Modeling

Further Reduced Tangent Modulus Modeling

Load Application

Proportional Loading

Incremental Loading


Load-Carrying Capacity

Serviceability Limits

Ductility Requirements


Lateral Torsional Buckling

Adjustment of Member Sizes


Computer Program


Program Overview

Nonlinear Analysis Routines

Organization of Computer Program

Hardware Requirements

Execution of Program

User's Manual

General Rules

Input Instructions


Frame Configuration and Load Condition

Input Data Preparation

Program Execution

Output Interpretation

Modification of In-House Program

Stability Function

Cross-Section Plastic Strength

CRC Tangent Modulus

Parabolic Function

Geometric Imperfection

Semi-Rigid Connection


Design Examples


Simple Structures

Three-Span Continuous Beam

Two-Story Column

Truss Structures

Roof Truss

Pratt Truss

Braced Frames

Simple Braced Frame

Braced Eight-Story Frame

Unbraced Frames

One-Story Two-Bay Frame

Leaning Column Frame

Two-Story Frame

Eight-Story Frame

Five-Bay Four-Story AISC Frame

Semi-Rigid Frames

Two-Story One-Bay Semi-Rigid Frame

Two-Story Four-Bay Semi-Rigid Frame



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