Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids

1st Edition

By Eliot Epstein

CRC Press

216 pages | 10 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2002-09-27
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Description

Over 50 percent of the 6,900 million dry tons of sewage sludge generated each year in the United States is land applied. The principal controversies surrounding the land application of biosolids involve heavy metals and pathogens. Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids is a comprehensive, scientific text providing a complete review of various aspects of this controversial subject, from an extensive discussion of heavy metals and pathogens to the fate and effects of organic compounds. Consideration is given to crop removal of metals and organics, soil erosion, and leaching, as well as to differing approaches and regulations in Europe and Canada. The result is an authoritative, science-based, and unbiased perspective on the benefits and the potential risks of land application to human health and the environment.

About the Author:

Elliot Epstein, Ph.D. is Chief Environmental Scientist for Tetra Tech, Inc. and an adjunct professor of public health at Boston University School of Public Health. He received his Ph.D. in soil physics from Purdue University and served as a research leader for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service for 16 years. Dr. Epstein has more than 30 years of experience in biosolids composting, and has managed or directed more than 400 composting projects. He has consulted on composting and biosolids management for the USEPA, World Bank, and United Nations.

Table of Contents

Land Application of Biosolids: A Prospective

Introduction

Use and Disposal of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids

Systems for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids

History of Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids

Wastewater Treatment and Biosolids Production

Conclusion

References

Sewage Sludge and Biosolids' Characteristics

Introduction

Physical Properties

Chemical Properties

Trace Elements, Heavy Metals, and Micronutrients

Organic Compounds

Acidity (pH)

Plant Nutrients

Biological Properties

Microbiological

Organic Matter

Conclusion

References

Plant Nutrients

Introduction

Nitrogen

Ammonification

Nitrification

Immobilization

Denitrification

Volatilization

Mineralization

Phosphorus

Potassium

Micronutrients

Conclusion

References

Trace Elements: Heavy Metals and Micronutrients

Introduction

Sources of Trace Elements, Heavy Metals, and Micronutrients in the Environment

Trace Elements in Biosolids

Trace Elements in Animals, Humans, Soils and Plants

Arsenic (As)

Animals and Humans

Soils

Plants

Cadmium (Cd)

Animals and Humans

Soil

Plants

Chromium (Cr)

Animals and Humans

Soils

Plants

Copper (Cu)

Animals and Humans

Soils

Plants

Lead (Pb)

Animals and Humans

Soils

Plants

Mercury (Hg)

Animals and Humans

Soils

Plants

Molybdenum (Mo)

Animals and Humans

Soils

Plants

Nickel (Ni)

Animals and Humans

Soil

Plants

Selenium (Se)

Soil

Plants

Zinc (Zn)

Animals and Humans

Soil

Plants

Conclusion

References

The Effect of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids on Uptake of Trace Elements and Reactions in Soil

Introduction

Plant Uptake of Heavy Metals

Reactions and Movement in Soils

Conclusion

References

Organic Chemicals

Introduction

Fate of Toxic Organic Compounds when Biosolids are Land Applied

Photodecomposition

Degradation

Plant Uptake of Organic Compounds

Conclusion

References

Pathogens in Wastewater and Biosolids

Introduction

Pathogens in Wastewater, Sludge and Biosolids

Removal of Pathogens by Wastewater Treatment Processes

Effect of Biosolids Treatment

Aerobic Digestion

Anaerobic digestion

Composting

Heat Drying

Alkaline stabilization

Conclusion

References

Pathogens in Soils and on Plants

Introduction

Pathogens in Soils

Bacteria

Viruses

Parasites

Pathogens on Plants

Conclusion

References

Land Application: Agricultural Crop Responses

Introduction

Agronomic Crops

Research Results Prior to 1970

Research Results 1970 to 2001

Forestry and Reclamation

Forestry

Reclamation

Conclusion

References

Effect of Land Application of Biosolids on Animals and Other Organisms

Introduction

Animals

Domestic

Wildlife

Microbial

Earthworms

Conclusion

References

Regulations

Introduction

Concepts and Approaches to Regulations

United States

Method I. 185

Method II.

Class A Requirements

Process Requirements

Alternative 1. Thermally Treated Sewage Sludge

[(503.32(a)(3)] 1

Alternative 2. Sewage Sludge Treated in a High pH-temperature Process (Alkaline Treatment) [503.329(a) (94)]

Alternative 3. Sewage Sludge Treated in Other Processes [503.32(a)(5)]

Alternative 4. Sewage Sludge Treated in Unknown Processes [503.31(a)(6)].

Alternative 5. Use of Process to Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) [503.32(a)(7)]

Alternative 6. Use of a Process Equivalent to PFRP [503.32(a)(8)]

Class B Requirements

Canada

Europe

Conclusion

References

About the Author

Eliot Epstein is Chief Environmental Scientist for Tetra Tech, Inc. and an adjunct professor of public health at Boston University School of Public Health at the School of Medicine. He received his B.S. degree in Forestry from New York College of Forestry at Syracuse University, an M.S. degree in Agronomy from the University of Massachusetts, and a Ph.D. in soil physics from Purdue University. For 16 years he was a research leader for the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and an adjunct professor of soil physics at the University of Maine. His research there concentrated on soil erosion and runoff and soil water relations of plants., In 1972, Dr. Epstein transferred to the USDA ARS research center in Beltsville, Maryland, where he conducted research on the use of biosolids, and where, in 1975, he researched and developed the aerated static pile method (ASP). In 1980, he became president of E&A Environmental Consultants, Inc., a premier company in composting and beneficial use of organic materials. In that capacity, he was the principal-in-charge of numerous projects conducted by the staff located in Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Washington State., Dr. Epstein has more than 30 years of experience in biosolids composting, and has managed or directed more than 400 composting projects in the United States, Canada and Europe. He consulted on composting and biosolids management for the US EPA, World Bank and United Nations. In 2001, Dr. Epstein and his staff joined Tetra Tech, Inc., a leading company in water reuse, wastewater and beneficial use of organic residues.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC003000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply