Large Turbo-Generators: Malfunctions and Symptoms, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Large Turbo-Generators

Malfunctions and Symptoms, 1st Edition

By Isidor Kerszenbaum, Geoff Klempner

CRC Press

566 pages | 235 Color Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781498707022
pub: 2016-08-18
$185.00
x
eBook (VitalSource) : 9781315371542
pub: 2016-09-15
from $111.00


FREE Standard Shipping!

Description

This book presents a comprehensive, ordered relationship between malfunctions and symptoms occurring in large turbogenerators. With this book, the operator and/or engineer in a generating station could identify underlying causes of a developing component degradation or a failure quicker, which could potentially save both time and money and reduce the trial-and-error troubleshooting process.

Large turbogenerators are the most important source of electricity. They can be found in thousands of power stations in every country. Forced outages, failures and degradation of these very expensive machines have an enormous aggregate cost to society. As such, any tool that can ameliorate loss of production by shaving time from troubleshooting activities, and avoiding unnecessary costs by detecting and promptly responding to component degradation, represents a step forward.

Reviews

"This is a book like no other. It is destined to help power plant people understanding the real meaning of alarms and indications that come from their generator to the control room. A large turbo-generator is a complicate and expensive machine, which is responsible for a vital product (electricity), hence the importance of this work. Writing such difficult book requires deep knowledge, long experience, desire to teach and readiness to invest hard efforts. The Kerszenbaum & Klempner team prove in their book all these abilities and made an indispensable field-guide."

—Relu Ilie, Israel Electric Corporation

"The authors continue to contribute to the industry by sharing their entire career’s worth of learning and experience. This book and the Handbook of Large Turbo-Generator Operation and Maintenance are designed to accelerate reader’s learnings and are excellent as reference books or to expand one’s knowledge.

I do think this book will be positively received in the generator community. The book will instantly broaden each reader’s experience with the vast amount of information learned on many machines."

Nick Casazza, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Arizona, USA

"The Power Generation industry needs "materials" such as this book to provide guidance and training for the next generation of Power Plant Operations and Maintenance personnel. Our university systems have drifted away from offering Power focused courses; therefore, it is essential that our experienced industry leaders share this knowledge and expertise related to these critical assets for the next generation of Power Plant personnel.

This book will provide valuable information to educate Power Plant personnel for the safe, reliable and cost effective operation and maintenance for generating assets."

—Donald Barnett, CPS Energy, Texas, USA

Table of Contents

Preface………………………………………………………………………………………………………..xi

Caveat Emptor…………………………………………………………………………………………..xv

Acknowledgments…………………………………………………………………………………. xvii

List of Acronyms…………………………………………………………………………………….. xix

1. Book Organization………………………………………………………………………………1

2. Protective Functions…………………………………………………………………………….5

2.1 Difference between Protection and Monitoring Functions………….5

2.2 Basic Protection Philosophy………………………………………………………..6

2.3 Typical Protective Functions Applied to Large

Turbogenerators……………………………………………………………………. 7

2.4 Primary and Backup Protective Functions………………………………….8

2.5 Identifying the Various Protected Zones………………………………….. 14

2.6 How to Identify Probable Causes from the Actuation of

Protection Relays………………………………………………………………………. 19

2.7 Essential Checks before Returning a Unit to Service after a

Protection Trip…………………………………………………………………………..22

2.8 Essential Checks before Returning a Unit to Service after Receiving an Alarm………………………………………………………………….. 24

2.9 Alarm Response Procedures…………………………………………………….. 24

2.9.1 Rotor Grounds…………………………………………………….. 24

2.9.2 Winding Temperature…………………………………………………….. 26

2.9.3 End-Winding Vibration…………………………………………………….. 26

2.9.4 Rotor Vibration…………………………………………………….. 27

References…………………………………………………………………………………………..27

3. Monitored Parameters……………………………………………………………………….29

3.1 Typical Monitored Variables in Large Turbogenerators……………..29

3.2 General Machine Variables………………………………………………………..30

3.2.1 Stator Terminal Voltage………………………………………………….30

3.2.2 Stator Terminal Current…………………………………………………30

3.2.3 Generator Real and Reactive Power Output………………….. 32

3.2.4 Generator Frequency……………………………………………………..33

3.2.5 Rotor Field Voltage and Current…………………………………….34

3.2.6 Volts per Hertz………………………………………………………………34

3.2.7 Negative Sequence Stator Current………………………………….35

3.2.8 Byproducts of Insulation Pyrolysis ……………………………….35

3.2.9 Liquids Inside the Generator…………………………………………. 37

3.2.10 Ozone……………………………………………………………………………. 37

viii Contents

3.3 Stator (Frame, Core, and Winding) Variables……………………………. 39

3.3.1 Frame Movement and/or Vibration………………………………. 39

3.3.2 Core Vibration………………………………………………………………. 39

3.3.3 Core Temperature………………………………………………………….40

3.3.4 Flux Shield and Compression-Plate Temperatures…………40

3.3.5 End-Winding Vibration………………………………………………….42

3.3.6 Stator Conductor Temperature and Differential Temperature…42

3.3.7 Partial Discharge Activity……………………………………………..43

3.4 Rotor Variables………………………………………………………………………….45

3.4.1 Rotor Vibration………………………………………………………………45

3.4.2 Rotor Winding Temperature………………………………………….45

3.4.3 Rotor Field Shorted Turns………………………………………………46

3.4.4 Rotor Ground Faults………………………………………………………46

3.4.5 Shaft Voltage and Current……………………………………………..46

3.4.6 Torsional Oscillation………………………………………………………48

3.5 Excitation Variables……………………………………………………………………48

3.5.1 Brushgear Temperature and Condition of Air Filter………50

3.5.2 Hydrogen in Brushgear Housing/Compartment…………..50

3.5.3 Water Leaks in the Exciter/Rectifier Cubicle………………….50

3.5.4 Exciter Temperature………………………………………………………50

3.5.5 PMG/HFG Voltage Output……………………………………………. 51

3.6 Hydrogen System Variables………………………………………………………. 52

3.7 Stator Cooling Water System Variables………………………………………54

3.8 Rotor Cooling Water System Variables………………………………………56

3.9 Seal-Oil System Variables………………………………………………………….56

3.10 Lubrication System Variables……………………………………………………. 57

3.11 Identifying the Common Sources of Monitoring and

Protection Variables…………………………………………………………………..58

References…………………………………………………………………………………………..66

4. List of Symptoms………………………………………………………………………………. 69

4.1 Definition of Symptom……………………………………………………………… 69

4.2 List of Symptoms …………………………………………………………………….. 70

4.2.1 Core and Frame Symptoms…………………………………………… 74

4.2.2 Stator Symptoms……………………………………………………………83

4.2.3 Rotor Symptoms………………………………………………………….. 105

4.2.4 Excitation Symptoms…………………………………………………… 114

4.2.5 Lubrication System Symptoms……………………………………. 125

4.2.6 Seal-Oil System Symptoms…………………………………………. 128

4.2.7 Hydrogen System Symptoms………………………………………. 134

4.2.8 Stator Cooling Water System Symptoms……………………… 142

Contents ix

5. List of Malfunctions……………………………………………………………………….. 153

5.1 Types of Malfunctions…………………………………………………………….. 160

5.1.1 Component Failure……………………………………………………… 160

5.1.2 Component Degradation…………………………………………….. 160

5.2 Core and Frame Malfunctions………………………………………………… 161

5.3 Stator Malfunctions………………………………………………………………… 212

5.4 Rotor Malfunctions…………………………………………………………………. 331

5.5 Excitation System Malfunctions………………………………………………400

5.6 Hydrogen System Malfunctions………………………………………………440

5.7 Stator Cooling Water System Malfunctions……………………………..466

5.8 Seal-Oil System Malfunctions………………………………………………….486

5.9 Lubrication (Lube-Oil) System Malfunctions…………………………..503

6. Relations between Symptoms and Malfunctions………………………….. 517

6.1 Definite versus Bayesian Approaches……………………………………… 517

6.2 Establishing Links between Symptoms and Malfunctions……… 518

6.3 Multistage Events versus Single-Stage Simplification……………… 524

6.3.1 Multistage Event…………………………………………………………. 524

7. Monitored Parameters…………………………………………………………………….. 527

7.1 Tables of Useful Variables……………………………………………………….. 527

Index………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 539

About the Authors

Isidor Kerszenbaum, PhD, is an IEEE Fellow residing in Irvine, California. He is a generator specialist consulting to power plants on operation, maintenance and troubleshooting of large motors and generators. He is also active in the Electric Machinery Committee of the IEEE-PES.

Geoff Klempner, BASc, is an IEEE Fellow and generator specialist residing in Toronto, Canada. He has served in numerous IEEE committees and standards working groups for large generators. He is also a contributor to CIGRE on large rotating electrical machines.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI024000
SCIENCE / Energy
TEC008000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TEC031020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Electrical