7th Edition

Learning and Behavior
Instructor's Review Copy

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ISBN 9780205246540
Published June 21, 2012 by Psychology Press
448 Pages

USD $160.00

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Book Description

This book reviews how people and animals learn and how their behaviors are later changed as a result of this learning. Nearly all of our behaviors are influenced by prior learning experiences in some way. This book describes some of the most important principles, theories, controversies, and experiments that pertain to learning and behavior that are applicable to many different species and many different learning situations. Many real-world examples and analogies make the concepts and theories more concrete and relevant to the students. In addition, most of the chapters include sections that describe how the theories and principles have been used in the applied field of behavior modification. Each chapter in the seventh edition was updated with new studies and new references that reflect recent developments in the field. The book includes a number of learning aids for students, including a list of learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter, practices quizzes and review questions, and a glossary for all important terms.

Learning & Behavior covers topics such as classical and operant conditioning, reinforcement schedules, avoidance and punishment, stimulus control, comparative cognition, observational learning, motor skill learning, and choice. Both the classic studies and the most recent developments and trends in the field are explored. Although  the behavioral approach is emphasized,  many cognitive theories are covered as well along with  a chapter on comparative cognition. 

Upon completing this book readers will be able to:understand the field of learning and discuss real-world applications of learning principles.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 History, Background, and Basic Concepts  Chapter 2 Innate Behavior Patterns and Habituation  Chapter 3 Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning  Chapter 4 Theories and Research on Classical Conditioning  Chapter 5 Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning  Chapter 6 Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and Applications  Chapter 7 Avoidance and Punishment  Chapter 8 Theories and Research on Operant Conditioning  Chapter 9 Stimulus Control and Concept Learning  Chapter 10 Comparative Cognition  Chapter 11 Learning by Observation  Chapter 12 Learning Motor Skills  Chapter 13 Choice  Glossary  References  Acknowledgments  Author Index  Subject Index  2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS  Preface  Chapter 1: History, Background, and Basic Concepts  The Search for General Principles of Learning  The Associationists  Aristotle  The British Associationists: Simple and Complex Ideas  Ebbinghaus,s Experiments on Memory  The Effects of Repetition  The Effects of Time  The Role of Contiguity  The Influence of the Associationists and Ebbinghaus  Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches to Learning  The Use of Animal Subjects  The Emphasis on External Events  The Physiological Approach: Brain and Behavior  The Basic Characteristics of Neurons  Physiological Research on Simple Sensations  Physiological Research on Feature Detectors  Physiological Research on Learning  Summary  Review Questions  Chapter 2: Innate Behavior Patterns and Habituation  Characteristics of Goal-Directed Systems  Reflexes  Tropisms and Orientation  Kineses  Taxes  Sequences of Behavior  Fixed Action Patterns  Reaction Chains  Innate Human Abilities and Predispositions  Habituation  General Principles of Habituation  Physiological Mechanisms of Habituation  Habituation in Emotional Responses: The Opponent-Process Theory  Summary  Review Questions  Chapter 3: Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning  Pavlov,s Discovery and Its Impact  The Standard Paradigm of Classical Conditioning  The Variety of Conditioned Responses  Pavlov,s Stimulus Substitution Theory  S-S or S-R Connections?  Basic Conditioning Phenomena  Acquisition  Extinction  Spontaneous Recovery, Disinhibition, and Rapid Reacquisition  Conditioned Inhibition  Generalization and Discrimination  The Importance of Timing in Classical Conditioning  CS-US Correlations  Higher Order Conditioning  Classical Conditioning Outside the Laboratory  Classical Conditioning and Emotional Responses  Classical Conditioning and the Immune System  Applications in Behavior Therapy  Summary  Review Questions  Chapter 4: Theories and Research on Classical Conditioning  Theories of Associative Learning  The Blocking Effect  The Rescorla-Wagner Model  Other Theories  Summary  Types of Associations  Associations in First-Order Conditioning  Associations in Second-Order Conditioning  Associations with Contextual Stimuli  CS-CS Associations  Occasion Setting  Summary  Biological Constraints on Classical Conditioning  The Contiguity Principle and Taste-Aversion Learning  Biological Preparedness in Taste-Aversion Learning  Biological Preparedness in Human Learning  Biological Constraints and the General-Principle Approach  The Form of the Conditioned Response  Drug Tolerance and Drug Cravings as Conditioned Responses  Conditioned Opponent Theories  Physiological Research on Classical Conditioning  Summary  Review Questions  Chapter 5: Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning  The Law of Effect  Thorndike,s Experiments  Guthrie and Horton: Evidence for a Mechanical Strengthening Process  Superstitious Behaviors  The Procedure of Shaping, or Successive Approximations  Shaping Lever Pressing in a Rat  Shaping Behaviors in the Classroom  Shaping as a Tool in Behavior Modification  Making Shaping More Precise: Percentile Schedules  Versatility of the Shaping Process  The Research of B. F. Skinner  The Free Operant  The Three-Term Contingency  Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning  Resurgence  Conditioned Reinforcement  Response Chains  Biological Constraints on Operant Conditioning  Instinctive Drift  Autoshaping  Reconciling Reinforcement Theory and Biological Constraints  Summary  Review Questions  Chapter 6: Reinforcement Schedules: Experimental Analyses and Applications  Plotting Moment-to-Moment Behavior: The Cumulative Recorder  The Four Simple Reinforcement Schedules  Fixed Ratio  Variable Ratio  Fixed Interval  Variable Interval  Extinction and the Four Simple Schedules  Other Reinforcement Schedules  Factors Affecting Performance on Reinforcement Schedules  Behavioral Momentum  Contingency-Shaped versus Rule-Governed Behaviors  Reinforcement History  Summary  The Experimental Analysis of Reinforcement Schedules  Cause of the FR Postreinforcement Pause  Comparisons of VR and VI Response Rates  Applications of Operant Conditioning  Teaching Language to Children with Autism  Token Reinforcement  Organizational Behavior Management  Behavior Therapy for Marital Problems  Conclusions  Summary  Review Questions  Chapter 7: Avoidance and Punishment  Avoidance  A Representative Experiment  Two-Factor Theory  Evidence Supporting Two-Factor Theory  Problems with Two-Factor Theory  One-Factor Theory  Cognitive Theory  Biological Constraints in Avoidance Learning  Conclusions about the Theories of Avoidance  Flooding as Behavior Therapy  Learned Helplessness  Punishment  Is Punishment the Opposite of Reinforcement?  Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment  Disadvantages of Using Punishment  Negative Punishment  Behavior Decelerators in Behavior Therapy  Positive Punishment  Negative Punishment: Response Cost and Time-Out  Other Techniques for Behavior Deceleration  Summary  Review Questions  Chapter 8: Theories and Research on Operant Conditioning  The Role of the Response  The Role of the Reinforcer  Is Reinforcement Necessary for Operant Conditioning?  Expectations about the Reinforcer  Can Reinforcement Control Visceral Responses?  Biofeedback  How Can We Predict What Will Be a Reinforcer?  Need Reduction  Drive Reduction  Trans-situationality  Premack,s Principle  Response Deprivation Theory  The Functional Analysis of Behaviors and Reinforcers  Behavioral Economics  Optimization: Theory and Research  Elasticity and Inelasticity of Demand  Behavioral Economics and Drug Abuse  Other Applications  Summary  Review Questions  Chapter 9: Stimulus Control and Concept Learning  Generalization Gradients  Measuring Generalization Gradients  What Causes Generalization Gradients?  Is Stimulus Control Absolute or Relational?  Transposition and Peak Shift  Spence,s Theory of Excitatory and Inhibitory Gradients  The Intermediate-Size Problem  Other Data, and Some Conclusions  Behavioral Contrast  "Errorless" Discrimination Learning  Transfer of Learning and Learning Sets  Concept Learning  The Structure of Natural Categories  Animal Studies on Natural Concept Learning  Developing Stimulus Equivalence  Stimulus Control in Behavior Modification  Stimulus Equivalence Training  Study Habits and Health Habits  Insomnia  Summary  Review Questions  Chapter 10: Comparative Cognition  Memory and Rehearsal  Short-Term Memory, or Working Memory  Rehearsal  Long-Term Memory, Retrieval, and Forgetting  Time, Number, and Serial Patterns  Experiments on an "Internal Clock"  Counting  Serial Pattern Learning  Chunking  Language and Reasoning  Teaching Language to Animals  Reasoning by Animals  Summary  Review Questions  Chapter 11: Learning by Observation  Theories of Imitation  Imitation as an Instinct  Imitation as an Operant Response  Imitation as a Generalized Operant Response  Bandura,s Theory of Imitation  Which Theory of Imitation Is Best?  Mirror Neurons and Imitation  Interactions Between Observational Learning and Operant Conditioning  Achievement Motivation  Aggression  Effects of the Mass Media  Television Violence and Aggressive Behavior  Video Games and Popular Music  What Can Be Learned Through Observation?  Phobias  Drug Use and Addictions  Cognitive Development  Moral Standards and Behavior  Modeling in Behavior Therapy  Facilitation of Low-Probability Behaviors  Acquisition of New Behaviors  Elimination of Fears and Unwanted Behaviors  Video Self-Modeling  Conclusions: The Sophisticated Skill of Learning by Observation  Summary  Review Questions  Chapter 12: Learning Motor Skills  The Variety of Motor Skills  Variables Affecting Motor Learning and Performance  Reinforcement and Knowledge of Results  Knowledge of Performance  Distribution of Practice  Observational Learning of Motor Skills  Transfer from Previous Training  Ironic Errors in Movement  Theories of Motor-Skill Learning  Adams,s Two-Stage Theory  Schmidt,s Schema Theory  What is the Best Way to Practice?  Learning Movement Sequences  The Response Chain Approach  Motor Programs  Dynamic Pattern Theory  Summary  Review Questions  Chapter 13: Choice  The Matching Law  Herrnstein,s Experiment  Other Experiments on Matching  Deviations from Matching  Varying the Quality and Amount of Reinforcement  An Application to Single Schedules  Theories of Choice Behavior  Matching Theory and Melioration Theory  Optimization Theory  Momentary Maximization Theory  Other Theories of Choice  Self-Control Choices  Delay Discounting  The Ainslie-Rachlin Theory  Animal Studies on Self-Control  Factors Affecting Self-Control in Children  Techniques for Improving Self-Control  Other Choice Situations  Risk Taking  The Tragedy of the Commons 

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James E. Mazur obtained his B.A. in Psychology from Dartmouth College in 1973, and his Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from Harvard University in 1977. He taught at Harvard University as an assistant professor and associate professor from 1980 to 1988, and since then he has taught at Southern Connecticut State University, where he is a CSU Professor of Psychology. He has conducted research on operant conditioning and choice for over 35 years. He has published over 60 journal articles and chapters on such topics as reinforcement schedules, conditioned reinforcement, self-control, risk-taking, procrastination, and mathematical models of choice.

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