IDEAL, the International Decade for East African Lakes, is a ten-year multi-national, multi-disciplinary investigation of the biological, geological, chemical, and physical limnology of the East African Lakes, taking into special account the Great Lakes of the East African Rift Valley and the climatology and paleoclimatology of the Rift Valley itself. The selected papers in this book serve as baseline knowledge for this intensive examination, with most of the contributing authors already actively researching these lakes. The oldest in the world and the largest on the continent, the lakes are vital resources for the indigenous populations of their basins. They are unique not only in their diverse populations of endemic species of fish and invertebrates, but in their sensitivity to climatic change, unusual circulation dynamics and water-column chemistry in relation to higher altitudes, and continuous record of climatic change in tropical Africa. This volume provides an overview of our current knowledge of the lakes combined with the most recent results of specific research efforts by African, American, and European investigators. Included also are some discussions on the impact of man, as well as comprehensive bibliographies.
Introduction, Acknowledgments, Tectonic Setting of the East African Lakes, Tectonic Controls on the Development of Rift-Basin Lakes and Their Sedimentary Character: Examples from the East African Rift System, East African Climate, A Review of Climate Dynamics and Climate Variability in Eastern Africa, Sensitivity of Subtropical African and Asian Climate to Prescribed Boundary Condition Changes: Model Implications for the Plio-Pleistocene Evolution of Low-Latitude Climate, Isotope Patterns of Precipitation in the East African Region, African River Discharges and Lake Levels in the Twentieth Century, Physical Limnology, Comparison of Hydrology and Physical Limnology of the East African Great Lakes: Tanganyika, Malawi, Victoria, Kivu and Turkana (with Reference to Some North American Great Lakes), The Present Physicochemical Ecology of Lake Victoria, Uganda, Measurement of Water Currents, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen and Winds on the Kenyan Lake Victoria, CTD-Transmissometer Profiles from Lakes Malawi and Turkana, Combined Effects of Dissolved Solids and Temperature on the Density Stratification of Lake Malawi, Aquatic Chemistry, Phosphorus Pumps, Nitrogen Sinks and Silicon Drains: Plumbing Nutrients in the African Great Lakes, Pore Water Chemistry of an Alkaline Lake: Lake Turkana, Kenya, Seasonal Variation in the Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Sediment Trap Materials Collected in Lake Malawi, The Chemical Composition of Precipitation and Its Significance to the Nutrient Budget of Lake Malawi, Residence Times of Major Ions in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, and Their Relationship to Lake Hydrology, Food Webs and Fisheries, Pelagic Food Webs of the East African Great Lakes, Molecular Phylogenetic Inferences About the Evolutionary History of East African Cichlid Fish Radiations, Anthropogenic Impact on Fisheries Resources of Lake Naivasha, Zooplankton Dynamics in Lake Victoria, A Review of Lake Victoria Fisheries with Recommendations for Management and Conservation, Sedimentar