Local Food Environments: Food Access in America, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Local Food Environments

Food Access in America, 1st Edition

Edited by Kimberly B. Morland

CRC Press

323 pages

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Paperback: 9781498736978
pub: 2015-04-08
Hardback: 9781466567788
pub: 2014-09-02
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429099168
pub: 2014-09-02
from $26.48

FREE Standard Shipping!


Local Food Environments: Food Access in America provides information on the complex nature of food delivery systems as well as the historical and political trends that have shaped them over time. The book presents the empirical evidence demonstrating disparities in access to healthy affordable foods across the United States and how these disparities may explain food consumption patterns for some Americans as well as potential risks for diet-related illness.

The book describes the current body of research surrounding these associations and presents the methodological issues pertinent to this area of public health. Evidence from these studies is placed in context of current and past American food policies that have supported the existing food retail market including the production and retailing of foods and ways in which the consolidation of the food system has affected Americans. Research conducted regarding local food environments in Canada has also been included as a point of comparison.

Methods are discussed as well as the current state of knowledge regarding factors associated with disparities between local food environments, the effect of these disparities on the diets of residents within those communities, and the impact that local food environments have on diet-related health outcomes, such as obesity. Also described are solutions garnered to minimize local food environment inequalities currently being conducted by federal, state, and local government agencies.

Although this book focuses on US local food environments, similar issues regarding access to food are concurrently taking place outside of the US. In all chapters, readers are encouraged to critically consider the current research methods as well as recent programs and policies that aim to address local food environments.


"… an excellent synthesis of research (by investigators in epidemiology, public health, and nutrition) and will educate readers on this complex, controversial issue and the impact of the situation on citizens in a variety of socioeconomic conditions. … interesting and thought provoking. Summing up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty and professionals."

—S. C. Hardesty, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA for CHOICE, November 2015

Table of Contents

Introduction; Kimberly B. Morland

Defining Local Food Environments

Food Retailing in the United States

Food Consumption Trends in the United States

Conceptual Models and Local Food Environments


U.S. Agricultural Policies and the U.S. Food Industry: Production to Retail; Arlene Spark

U.S. Government Oversight of Agriculture

U.S. Farm Bill

Overview and History of the Farm Bill

U.S. Food Industry


Environmental Injustice Connects Local Food Environments with Global Food Production; Steve Wing

Environmental Injustice and Industrial Food Production

Industrial Farm Animal Production

Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of Industrial Animal Production


Geography of Local Food Environments: People and Places; Kimberly B. Morland

Environmental versus Individual Causes of Disease

Racial Segregation in the United States

Segregation and Area Resources

Developing a Conceptual Model

Measurement of Geographic Boundaries of Local Food Environments

Measurement of Food Availability

Evidence of Disparities in Access to Healthy Foods in the United States (1997–2013)


Local Food Environments and Dietary Intake; Barbara A. Laraia, Bethany Hendrickson, and Yun T. Zhang

Diet and Health

Measuring Diet for Local Food Environment Research

Food Environment Measures and Methods

Association Between Diet and Food Prices and Quality

School Environment

External School Environment

Summary and Conclusions


Local Food Environments and Diet-Related Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Local Food Environments, Body Weight, and Other Diet-Related Health Outcomes; Shannon N. Zenk, Esther Thatcher, Margarita Reina, and Angela Odoms-Young

Causal Conceptual Model

Study Selection

Evidence for Body Weight by Age

Evidence for Other Health Outcomes




Measurement and Analytical Issues Involved in the Estimation of the Effects of Local Food Environments on Health Behaviors and Health Outcomes; Latetia V. Moore and Ana V. Diez-Roux

Conceptual Models

Study Design

Measurement of the Local Food Environment

Analytical Issues


Local Food Environments Outside of the United States—A Look to the North: Examining Food Environments in Canada; Jennifer Black

Introduction to Local Food Environments in Canada

Local Food Environment Research in Canada

Food Retailing in Canada

Summary of Insights from the Canadian Literature




State-Level Interventions: Pennsylvania’s Fresh Food Financing Initiative; Yael Lehmann, April White, Jordan Tucker, and Allison Karpyn

Importance of Supermarkets

Supermarket Campaign in Pennsylvania

Creation and Implementation of Pennsylvania’s Fresh Food Financing Initiative

Impacts of Pennsylvania’s Fresh Food Financing Initiative

Scaling Up: Replication of the Food Trust Framework and

Pennsylvania’s Fresh Food Financing Initiative

Comprehensive Approach to Improving Food Access


Ecological Approaches to Creating Healthy Local Food Environments in the United States: Push and Pull Forces; Carol M. Devine and Jennifer L. Wilkins


Ecological Framework: Multiple Levels of Action

Approaches to Increasing Community Food Access

Surveillance and Research Needs

Going Further



About the Editor

Kimberly B. Morland is an associate professor at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. She obtained her PhD in epidemiology from the University of North Carolina. Dr. Morland has developed new epidemiologic methods for geographically based data collection and analysis to investigate associations between neighborhood environments and residents’ behaviors that have been replicated by investigators in areas across the United States and other countries. They have also been used by community-based organizations to support local changes to commercial environments. Dr. Morland has served on a number of national and local review panels, worked with community-based organizations, and implemented one of the first interventions to address food access by developing a community-owned and community-operated food store in Brooklyn. Her research focuses on the impact of local environments on health.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MEDICAL / Nutrition
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Public Policy / General