The end of apartheid has triggered massive illegal immigration into South Africa from all parts of Africa and beyond. Along with urbanization and internal migration, the end of apartheid has encouraged human smuggling and the trafficking of men, women, and children into the commercial sex market and various sectors of the economy from mining to agriculture and the service industries. Long Walk to Nowhere analyses the impact of these developments on Nelson Mandela's vision for a democratic South Africa.
Frankel explores human rights, the political culture, public health, the criminal justice system, and institutional development as South Africa moves into its third decade after liberation. Using migration and human trafficking as barometers for democratic success, Frankel establishes that South Africa has become more unstable under two post-Mandela presidencies.
The book covers the three major modes of human trafficking—commercial sex trafficking, child trafficking, and labour trafficking. It also looks at the dynamics of trafficking with a perpetrator-focus, the complex issues of dominance, and the policy responses in light of South Africa's first comprehensive counter-trafficking legislation designed for implementation in late 2015. Long Walk to Nowhere blends South African experiences with contemporary mass political movements which challenge human rights and good governance on a world-wide basis.
List of Abbreviations
1 Human Trafficking in South Africa
Part I. Modalities
2 The Exotic Industries: Commercial Sex Trafficking
3 Ending Innocence: Child Trafficking
4 "Labour Chains": Adult Non-Sexual
Labour Trafficking (NSL)
Legal and Illicit Mining
Brokered and Broken?
Part II. Processes
5 Perpetration and Corruption
Opportunism and Organised Crime
6 Measuring Immeasurables: The Prevalence of
Human Trade in South Africa
Part III. Responses: Counter-Trafficking
7 The Legal and Operational Landscape
8 Public Education and Victim Recovery
Front-Line Intelligence: Public Education
Restoring the Inner Self: Rehabilitation
9 From Cape Town to Croatia: Conclusions for Counter-Trafficking