MEMS and Nanotechnology for Gas Sensors  book cover
1st Edition

MEMS and Nanotechnology for Gas Sensors

ISBN 9781498700122
Published October 9, 2015 by CRC Press
224 Pages - 91 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

How Can We Lower the Power Consumption of Gas Sensors?

There is a growing demand for low-power, high-density gas sensor arrays that can overcome problems relative to high power consumption. Low power consumption is a prerequisite for any type of sensor system to operate at optimum efficiency. Focused on fabrication-friendly microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and other areas of sensor technology, MEMS and Nanotechnology for Gas Sensors explores the distinct advantages of using MEMS in low power consumption, and provides extensive coverage of the MEMS/nanotechnology platform for gas sensor applications.

This book outlines the microfabrication technology needed to fabricate a gas sensor on a MEMS platform. It discusses semiconductors, graphene, nanocrystalline ZnO-based microfabricated sensors, and nanostructures for volatile organic compounds. It also includes performance parameters for the state of the art of sensors, and the applications of MEMS and nanotechnology in different areas relevant to the sensor domain.

In addition, the book includes:

  • An introduction to MEMS for MEMS materials, and a historical background of MEMS
  • A concept for cleanroom technology
  • The substrate materials used for MEMS
  • Two types of deposition techniques, including chemical vapour deposition (CVD)
  • The properties and types of photoresists, and the photolithographic processes
  • Different micromachining techniques for the gas sensor platform, and bulk and surface micromachining
  • The design issues of a microheater for MEMS-based sensors
  • The synthesis technique of a nanocrystalline metal oxide layer
  • A detailed review about graphene; its different deposition techniques; and its important electronic, electrical, and mechanical properties with its application as a gas sensor
  • Low-cost, low-temperature synthesis techniques
  • An explanation of volatile organic compound (VOC) detection and how relative humidity affects the sensing parameters

MEMS and Nanotechnology for Gas Sensors provides a broad overview of current, emerging, and possible future MEMS applications. MEMS technology can be applied in the automotive, consumer, industrial, and biotechnology domains.

Table of Contents


Cleanroom Technology

Microelectromechanical System

Significance of MEMS


Substrate for MEMS


Silicon: The Base




Physical Vapour Deposition

Chemical Vapour Deposition



Photolithography: Pattern Transfer


Photoresist for Structuring

Some Important Properties of Photoresist

Types of Photoresists: Negative and Positive Photoresists

Designing of Mask Layout

Photolithography Process

Application of Photoresist and Prebake

Alignment, Exposure, and Pattern Formation

PR Developer and Postbake

Stripping (Photoresist Removal)

Some Advanced Lithographic Techniques

Structuring MEMS: Micromachining


Bulk Micromachining

Surface Micromachining

Etch-Stop Technique

High-Aspect-Ratio Micromachining


Microheaters for Gas Sensor


Need of Microheater

Types of Microheater

Microheater Design Issues

Heater Material Selection

Heater Geometry Selection

Function of Interdigitated Electrode

Software Used

Heating Power Consumption

Fabrication of Microheater

Microheater Array



Semiconductors as Gas Sensors


Development of Semiconductor Sensors

What Is a Nanosensor?

Solid-State Chemical Sensors


Sensing with Graphene


Properties of Graphene

Characterization Techniques

Synthesis of Single-Layer Graphene/Few-Layer Graphene

Graphene Oxide

Potential Application



Nanocrystalline ZnO-Based Microfabricated Chemical Sensor


Device Structure: Vertical and Horizontal

Comparison of Vertical and Horizontal Structure

Metal–Insulator–Metal Structure

Nanocrystalline ZnO as Sensing Material

Sensing Layer Deposition by Chemical Route


Nanostructures for Volatile Organic Compound Detection


Volatile Organic Compounds

Different Nanostructures

Sensing Mechanism

Measurement Technique

Effect of Relative Humidity on VOC Detection


Sensor Interfaces

Signal Processing

Smart Sensors

Interface Systems


MEMS- and Nanotechnology-Enabled Sensor Applications

MEMS and Nanotechnology

Automotive Applications: An Elaborated Study

Home Appliances


Environmental Monitoring

Process Engineering

Medical Diagnostic


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Sunipa Roy is assistant professor of electronics and telecommunications engineering at Guru Nanak Institute of Technology, Calcutta, India. She received her M.Tech in VLSI and microelectronics from West Bengal University of Technology in 2009, and her Ph.D in engineering from Jadavpur University in 2014. She has served as a fellow of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India), is a member of the Institution of Engineers (India), and a member of the IEEE. She has also presented numerous papers in journals and conferences. Her research interests include MEMS, nanotechnology, and graphene and its application as a gas sensor.

Chandan Kumar Sarkar is professor of electronics and telecommunications engineering at Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India. He received his B.Sc (Hons) and M.Sc in physics from Aligarh Muslim University, India in 1975, earned his Ph.D from Calcutta University in 1979, and his D.Phil from the University of Oxford, UK in 1984. In 1980, Dr. Sarkar received the British Royal Commission Fellowship to work at the University of Oxford. He worked as a visiting scientist at the Max Planck Laboratory in Stuttgart, Germany, and at Linkoping University in Sweden. He also taught in the Department of Physics at the University of Oxford.


"…this book is an outstanding, broad overview of basics, concepts, specific materials used for each sensing application, and techniques employed in current, emerging, and possible future MEMS applications. I strongly recommend this book to all research students interested in MEMS and gas sensors."
MRS Bulletin, December 2016