Making Your Data Center Energy Efficient  book cover
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1st Edition

Making Your Data Center Energy Efficient





ISBN 9781439855539
Published September 12, 2011 by Auerbach Publications
286 Pages - 44 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Detailing powerful methods for reducing the energy costs associated with operating a data center, Making Your Data Center Energy Efficient examines both equipment and building facilities. It reviews the rationale for conserving energy and demonstrates how conservation and careful equipment selection can lead to significant improvements to your bottom line. For those not well-versed in financial or energy terms, the first two chapters provide a detailed discussion of the terms associated with different types of energy, as well as how to compute the return on investment for energy conservation efforts.

The text includes tables of monthly expenses associated with operating equipment that will help you convert problems into simple table lookup processes. Among the money-saving topics discussed, it considers:

  • How to minimize the energy consumption of a wide range of devices
  • A little-understood topic that can make a big impact on energy costs—general heating and cooling
  • Techniques required to effectively monitor different types of meters
  • Phantom energy usage and methods for minimizing its cost to your organization

Recognizing that most readers may not have direct control over the selection of a furnace or hot water heater, the book provides you with the ability to recognize the efficiencies and inefficiencies of various types of devices, so you can provide input into the decision-making process. From replacing lighting to consolidation and virtualization, it provides you with the well-rounded understanding needed to properly manage all aspects of the energy consumed in your data center.

Table of Contents

Rationale for Energy Conservation and Its Financial Implications
The Cost of Energy 
     Energy and Power 
     Units of Power 
     BTUs and Horsepower
Comparing Energy 
     Oil, Gas, and Electric Costs 
          The Cost of Oil 
          The Cost of Natural Gas 
          The Cost of Electricity
Financial Metrics 
     The Return on Investment (ROI) 
          ROI Analysis 
     What Is Time Value? 
          Future Value Basics 
     Future Value Interest Factors 
     Present Value Basics
Annuities 
     Payment Frequency 
     Types of Annuities 
     Determining the Future Value of an Ordinary Annuity
     Present Value of an Annuity 
     Considering Monthly Cash Flows
Annuity Due 
     Annuity Notations
     Payback Period 
     Discounted Cash Flow 
     Weighted Average Cost of Capital 
     Internal Rate of Return 
     Computing the IRR 
     Using Excel 
          NPV Functions in Excel 
          ROI Functions in Excel 
     IRR Summary
Summary

Understanding Electrical Terms
Understanding Electricity 
     Atoms and Electrons 
     Electric Generators 
     Turbines 
     Circuit Measurements 
     Circuits
Electrical Power 
     Direct Current versus Alternating Current 
          Direct Current (DC)
The Power Supply 
     Power Supply Types 
     Operation 
     Phase 
     Power Rating
Meters to Consider
AC Measurements to Consider 
     RMS 
     Power Factor (PF) 
          Importance of the Power Factor 
     Ground
Electricity Distribution 
     The Power Plant 
     Transformers 
          Types of Transformers 
          Transformer Wiring 
          Service Methods 
          Single Phase versus Three Phase
The Service Panel 
     Types of Service Panels 
     Operation
     Inside the Service Panel 
     Building Service Panel
Circuits 
     Types of Circuits 
     Individual Circuits
Plugs and Sockets 
     Office Plugs and Sockets
UPS
Standby Generators
Selecting a Generator

General Heating and Cooling Considerations
Climate Control Systems
     Ventilation
Heating Systems
     Forced-Air Systems 
     Boilers 
     Rating/Capacity
     Radiant Heating Systems 
     Heat Pumps
     SEER and HSPF Ratings 
     Types of Heat Pumps 
          Hybrid Heat Pump 
          Solar-Assisted Heat Pump 
          Dual Fuel Heat Pump 
          Air-Source Heat Pump 
          Geothermal Heat Pumps 
     Electric Resistance Heating 
          Types of Electric Resistance Heaters 
     Radiators 
          Steam Heating 
          Hot Water Radiators 
          Hot Water Heaters
Types of Water Heaters 
     Conventional Tank Storage Water Heaters
     Tankless Water Heaters 
     Indirect Water Heaters
Cooling Systems 
     Central Air Conditioners 
          Types of Central Air Conditioners 
          Sizing 
          Cost Comparison 
          Other Features to Consider 
     Heat Pump Cooling
     Chillers 
          Use in Air-Conditioning 
          Types of Chillers 
     Classification
Factors to Consider 
     Rapid Restart Capability 
     Operating Multiple Chillers 
     Checking the Refrigerant Line 
     Optimize Cooling during Cold Weather 
     Examine Ductworks 
     Examining Air Filters 
     Heating and Cooling Items to Consider
Considering the Long Term

Reading and Understanding Your Electric, Gas, and Water Meters
The Electric Meter
     Electric Meter Categories
     Examining the Electric Meter
Reading an Electric Meter 
     Load Meters 
     Recording Data 
          Operation 
     Digital "Smart" Meters
Smart Meters and the Smart Grid 
     Reading the Smart Meter Display
     Smart Meter Problems 
     Standards 
     Possible Causes of Billing Inaccuracies 
     Why Rates Matter
The Natural Gas Meter 
     Types of Gas Meters 
     Meter Reading 
     Estimating the Monthly Gas Bill
The Water Meter 
     Locate Your Meter 
     Water Bills 
     Abnormalities in the Water Bill 
     Smart Water Meters

Data Center Equipment Energy Consumption
Operational Modes to Consider 
     Power Loads
Commonsense Items to Consider 
     Obtain Smart Power Strips 
     Check Cell Phone Charger Ratings 
     Unplug Rarely Used Devices
     Ensure Monitors Are Turned Off When Not Used 
     Turn Off or Place Computers in a Standby Mode 
     Favor Energy Star Equipment
General Cost Computations 
     Device Consumption 
     Varying the Cost per kWh 
     Servers 
          Computer Memory 
          Rack Pack Considerations 
     Communications Equipment 
          Cisco 3750 Series 
          Cisco StackPower and EnergyWise Technology 
     Other Techniques to Reduce Energy Consumption 
          Fan Speed Considerations 
          Rack Placement and Cooling Considerations
Available Calculators

Minimizing Computer Energy Consumption
Sleep Mode Considerations 
     Power Options 
          Accessing Power Options 
          Editing a Power Plan 
          CPU States 
          Advanced Settings
     Processor Power Management
     Display 
     Multimedia Settings
Computer Power Efficiency 
     Accessing the Command Prompt 
     Examining an Energy Report 
     Wake-on-LAN 
          Enabling Wake-on-LAN in Windows 
          Wake-on-LAN Capabilities 
          Limitations 
     Wireless Network Use 
     Delivery Confirmation 
     Security Issues 
     Specific Computer Linkage

Making Your Data Center Energy Efficient
Techniques to Consider 
     Finding Energy Loss 
     Replacing Monitors 
     Waiting Area Display 
     Upgrading the Operating System 
     Purchase Energy Star Compliant Products
Consolidation and Virtualization
     Telework 
     Consider Cloud Computing 
     Consider Desktop and Server Power Management
     Products 
     Consider Processor Efficiency 
     Consider Data Storage Consolidation 
     Examine IT Hardware Utilization 
     Consider Higher Voltage Power Distribution 
     Utilize Wireless Humidity and Temperature
     Transmitters 
     Minimize Phantom Energy Loss 
     Use Energy-Efficient Motors 
     Examine Airflow 
     Reduce Air Handler Operations When Not Necessary 
     Controlling the Power Factor 
     Use Caulking and Weather-Stripping to Block
     Air Leaks 
     Consider a Chargeback Policy That Includes Energy Cost 
     Consider Increases in Electricity Cost 
Water Considerations 
     Examine Water Heater Settings 
     Examine Water Usage
Replacing Lighting 
     Lumens 
     Watts as a Measurement Tool
     Lumens per Watt and Lux 
     Determining Watt Dissipation 
     Luminous Energy 
     Illuminance 
     Lighting Efficiency 
     Color Temperature 
          Representative Lighting Color Temperature 
     Comparing Lighting
Building Management Areas to Consider 
     Consider Adding Insulation 
          How Insulation Works
          Types of Insulation
          Rating Insulation
     Changing the Building Roof Color 
     Use Reusable Filters 
     Consider Electric Vehicles

Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Gilbert Held is currently with 4 Degrees Consulting.