This four-part monograph traces the dialectical development of economic thought from the Physiocrats through Marx to the present. It is a broad treatment of the history of intellectual thought that bridges economic and the social sciences on the one hand, with natural science and biology in particular on the other. The author is concerned with systems theory and treats the economy from the perspective of the biophysical thermodynamic dimensions of the economic processes. He closes his analysis with a discussion of organizational theory that relates to the formation of institutions and the issues of freedom in a technically dominated society. The book comes full circle in examining the moral and ethical concerns that first influenced the Physiocrats and other founding fathers of economic science.