Manganese Removal from Groundwater: Role of Biological and Physico-Chemical Autocatalytic Processes, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Manganese Removal from Groundwater

Role of Biological and Physico-Chemical Autocatalytic Processes, 1st Edition

By J.H. Bruins

CRC Press

138 pages

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Paperback: 9781138030022
pub: 2016-12-15
SAVE ~$13.39
$66.95
$53.56
x
Hardback: 9781138373471
pub: 2018-09-27
SAVE ~$32.00
$160.00
$128.00
x


FREE Standard Shipping!

Description

In The Netherlands, Belgium and other European countries, manganese is removed by conventional groundwater treatment with aeration and rapid (sand) filtration. Such a treatment process is easy to operate, cost effective and sustainable, because it does not make use of strong oxidants such as O3, Cl2, ClO2 and KMnO4 with the associated risk of by-product formation and over or under dosing.

However, application of aeration-filtration is also facing drawbacks, especially the long ripening time of filter media. Due to the long ripening time, water companies have to waste large volumes of treated water, making this process less sustainable. Also, costs associated with filter media ripening (man power, electricity, operational and analysis costs) are high. Therefore decreasing the filter ripening time, regarding manganese removal is a big issue.

Although already extended research has been carried out into manganese removal, the controlling mechanisms, especially of the start up face of filter media ripening, are not fully understood yet. The emphasis of this thesis is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the ripening of virgin filter media, regarding manganese removal and how to shorten or completely eliminate the long ripening period of filters with virgin material.

This thesis therefore highlights the role of the formation of a manganese oxide coating on virgin filter media. Characterization and identification revealed that the responsible manganese oxide for an effective manganese removal was Birnessite. It was found that Birnessite, formed at the beginning of the ripening process was of a biological origin. Based on the knowledge that manganese removal in conventional groundwater treatment is initiated biologically, long ripening times may be reduced by creating conditions favouring the growth of manganese oxidizing bacteria, e.g., by limiting the back wash frequency and / or intensity. Additionally, this thesis also shows that the use of freshly prepared manganese oxide, containing Birnessite, can completely eliminate filter media ripening time.

Table of Contents

Summary

1 General introduction

1.1 Manganese in groundwater and groundwater treatment in The Netherlands

1.1.1 Manganese occurrence in groundwater

1.1.2 The relevance of manganese in drinking water and guideline values

1.1.3 Groundwater treatment in the Netherlands

1.2 Problem description regarding manganese removal in practice

1.3 Aim and research objectives of this thesis

1.4 Outline of this thesis

1.5 References

2 Assessment of manganese removal from over 100 groundwater treatment plants

2.1 Abstract

2.2 Introduction

2.3 Materials and Methods

2.4 Results and Discussion

2.4.1 Multivariate statistics and univariate correlations

2.4.2 NH4+ removal efficiency

2.4.3 Effect of iron loading

2.4.4 Effect of (filtrate) pH

2.4.5 Other parameters

2.4.6 Effect of filtration rate (m/h)

2.4.7 Effect of contact time and filter bed depth

2.4.8 Effect of oxygen concentration

2.4.9 Effect of filtration type (gravity or pressure)

2.5 Conclusions

2.6 Acknowledgements

2.7 References

3 Manganese removal from groundwater: characterization of filter media coating

3.1 Abstract

3.2 Introduction

3.3 Materials and Methods

3.3.1 Raman spectroscopy

3.3.2 XRD

3.3.3 SEM-EDX

3.3.4 EPR

3.4 Results and Discussion

3.4.1 Selection Raman spectroscopy settings

3.4.2 Characterization of MOCA and MOCS by Raman spectroscopy

3.4.3 XRD

3.4.4 SEM-EDX

3.4.5 EPR

3.4.6 The importance of Birnessite formation on MOCA/MOCS for manganese removal

3.5 Conclusions

3.6 Acknowledgements

3.7 References

4 Biological and physico-chemical formation of birnessite during ripening of manganese removal filters

4.1 Abstract

4.2 Introduction

4.3 Materials and Methods

4.4 Results and Discussion

4.4.1 Analytical data pilot

4.4.2 Ripening time of filter media

4.4.3 Raman spectroscopy

4.4.4 Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)

4.4.5 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

4.5 Conclusions

4.6 Acknowledgements

4.7 References

5 Identification of the bacterial population in manganese removal filters

5.1 Abstract

5.2 Introduction

5.3 Materials and Methods

5.3.1 Next generation DNA sequencing

5.3.2 qPCR

5.3.3 Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS)

5.3.4 Fermenter growth test with selected bacteria to produce biological MnOx

5.4 Results and Discussion

5.4.1 Next generation DNA sequencing

5.4.2 qPCR

5.4.3 Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry biotyper (MALDI-TOF MS)

5.4.4 Fermenter growth test with selected bacteria for the biological production of MnOx

5.5 Conclusions

5.6 Acknowledgements

5.7 References

6 Reduction of ripening time of full scale manganese removal filters with manganese oxide coated media

6.1 Abstract

6.2 Introduction

6.3 Materials and Methods

6.3.1 MOCS and MOCA

6.3.2 Physical and chemical properties of MOCS and MOCA

6.3.3 Batch adsorption experiments

6.3.4 Full scale filter runs

6.4 Results and discussion

6.4.1 Ripening of virgin filter media in reference filters

6.4.2 Effect of water quality parameters

6.4.3 MOCS and MOCA characterisation and batch adsorption experiments

6.4.4 Ripening of full scale filters with the addition of MOCS and MOCA layers

6.5 Conclusions

6.6 Acknowledgements

6.7 References

7 Factors controlling the ripening of manganese removal filters in conventional aeration-filtration groundwater treatment

7.1 Abstract

7.2 Introduction

7.3 Materials and Methods

7.4 Results and Discussion

7.4.1 Filter ripening with virgin media and the effect of filter backwashing

7.4.2 Filter ripening with addition of a layer of manganese coated media

7.5 Conclusions

7.6 Acknowledgements

7.7 References

8 General conclusions

8.1 Overall conclusions and perspective

8.2 Assessment of manganese removal from over 100 groundwater treatment plants

8.3 Manganese removal from groundwater: Characterization of filter media coating

8.4 . Biological and physico-chemical formation of Birnessite during ripening of manganese removal filters

8.5 Identification of the bacterial population in manganese removal filters

8.6 Reduction of ripening time of full scale manganese removal filters with manganese oxide coated media

8.7 . Factors controlling the ripening of manganese removal filters in conventional aeration-filtration groundwater treatment

8.8 General outlook, limitations and recommendations

List of abbreviations and symbols

List of publications and presentations

About the Author

Jantinus Bruins was born in a small village called Eext, in the northern part of The Netherlands, in 1961. After finishing the laboratory school in 1979, he started working as laboratory assistant at "Zuiveringsschap Drenthe", a Dutch water board. After ten years, he continued a job as laboratory assistant and later as water treatment employee at "het Gemeentelijk Waterbedrijf Groningen - GWG", a municipal drinking water production company. In the meantime he achieved his BSc in Environmental Technology. After the GWG merged in 1998 with the drinking water company of the province of Groningen, he joined the new company "Waterbedrijf Groningen", as water technology specialist. Jantinus additionally followed the course Environmental Science from 1999-2002, and received his Msc in 2002. In 2000 he started to work for WLN, the water quality and technology advice center for two Dutch water companies in the northern part of The Netherlands, as senior technology advisor.

Jantinus is a broadly experienced specialist in water treatment, with over 35 years of field experience. His working field covers (environmental) technology for drinking supplies, industrial water supplies and wastewater treatment, with special emphasis on drinking water technology.

About the Series

IHE Delft PhD Thesis Series

IHE Delft PhD programme leads to a deepening of a field of specialisation. PhD fellows do scientific research, often with conclusions that directly influence their region. At IHE Delft, PhD researchers from around the world participate in problem-focused and solution-oriented research on development issues, resulting in an inspiring research environment. PhD fellows work together with other researchers from many countries dealing with topics related to water and the environment.

PhD research is often carried out in the ‘sandwich’ model. Preparation and final reporting – the first and last portion of the programme – are carried out in Delft, while actual research is done in the fellow’s home country, under co-supervision of a local institute. Regular contacts with the promotor are maintained through visits and long-distance communication. This enables researchers to employ solutions directly to problems in their geographical region.

IHE Delft PhD degrees are awarded jointly with a university. The degrees are highly valued and fully recognised in all parts of the world.

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General
TEC009110
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / Dams & Reservoirs
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply