Manufacturing Technology Transfer: A Japanese Monozukuri View of Needs and Strategies, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Manufacturing Technology Transfer

A Japanese Monozukuri View of Needs and Strategies, 1st Edition

By Yasuo Yamane, Tom Childs

Productivity Press

236 pages | 71 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2013-03-13
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Based on a bestselling book originally published in Japanese, Manufacturing Technology Transfer: A Japanese Monozukuri View of Needs and Strategies offers time-tested methods and little-known tips for achieving successful transfer of technology along with the skills required to operate that technology. Designed to support a series of lectures on technology transfer within a master’s course on the management of technology, it presents the resultsof years of research carried out at Hiroshima University.

The book delves into the authors’ decades of experience transferring technology between Japan and the rest of the world, particularly to developing countries from where much of the world’s future economic growth is expected. It contains case studies of successful technology transfers from both the ship building and food equipment industries. Its wide-reaching coverage examines methods of skill transfer, production management, and manufacturing company classification.

Introducing readers to the engineering activities that occur within the manufacturing industry, the book illustrates the engineering technology activities involved in manufacturing, along with the production management activities required to support them. It also explains how job simulators can help shorten learning times in the manufacturing industry in the same way that flight simulators are used to teach flying skills to pilots.

The book outlines a framework for teaching and learning processes that can be visualized in terms of an S-shaped learning curve. It explains how technology transfer overseas should be supported by contractual agreements between the parties concerned. Detailing the legal/contractual responsibilities for all parties involved, it also describes what you should do if problems arise during the transfer.

Integrating previously unpublished research results with illustrative case studies, this book is suitable for a wide audience within the manufacturing industry—including manufacturing engineering students in both developed and developing countries, those responsible for the development of manufacturing engineers in industry and elsewhere, and anyone interested in the international activities of Japanese manufacturing companies.


I am on a committee to start a new program in manufacturing engineering on our campus this fall and this book will help us define the types of student outcomes and research goals we need to have. We are now having to move to a more holistic, modeling, optimization and global manufacturing view which includes more management and strategy which is covered in this book.

—Mark Henderson, Arizona State University

Very nice topic and I especially enjoyed Chapter 9 with its model and thinking-processes for how (or not) to expand overseas and outsourcewell done.

—Paul Wright, University of California, Berkeley

Table of Contents

Manufacturing Industry

The Machine Tool Manufacturing Process


Production Engineering



Information and Object Flows in Manufacturing

Compatible Manufacturing Methods

Changes in Processing Accuracy

Classification of Manufacturing Industry and Products by Number of Parts and Processing Accuracy

Industrial Field and the Type of Technical Skill Required

Abilities Required by Engineers and Technicians

Discussion Questions

Learning Curves and Their Utilization

The Learning Curve

Engineering Equivalents to the Learning Curve

Specification of Skill Levels by Means of Learning Curves

Specification of Skill Levels and Its Benefits

Individual Learning Curves and Learning Curves According to Work

Evaluation of Individual Skill Levels

Evaluating a Company’s Technical Competence

Learning Curves and the Lifetime Employment System

Industry Field Surveys

Skill Levels and Learning Times

Age and Service Years of Staff

Companies’ Technical/Skill Level Estimated from Service Years

Skill Level and Standard Deviation

Proficiency Measurement

Skill Level and Standard Deviation

Discussion Questions

Skill Transfer in Manufacturing Industries

Technology and Skill Transfer

Skill Transfer from the Time of Chuang Tzu

Technical Skill Classification

The Teaching of Technical Skills

Learning Curve Time Reduction

The Early Period

The Fast Learning Period

The Maturity Period

Work De-Skilling

Historical Examples

Limits to De-Skilling

Mechanization and Automation of Skillful Work

Skill Level and Automation

The Security of Technology Transfer

Human Resources

Material Things


Turnover Rate and Technology/Skill Transfer

Discussion Questions

Virtual Manufacturing to Speed Up Learning

Hand Scraping

An Experimental Study of Expert Scraping Judgments

Hand Scraping Strategy

Computer Simulation of Scraping

High-Point Marking

Interpretation and Judgment


Computer Simulation and Education

Discussion Questions

Production Management and Technology Transfer in Manufacturing

Production Management

Production Activities and Management

Production Systems and Their Features

The Product Life Cycle

Management Technologies in the Product Life Cycle

Production Strategy in the Product Life Cycle

Technology Transfer and Management of Technology

Appropriate Technology Transfer and the Role of Management

Importance of State of Development

Importance of Human Resources

Importance of Market Competition

Importance of Strategic Factors

Technology Strategy and Issues of Management Technology

Offensive Strategy

Defensive Strategy

Imitative Strategy

Dependent Strategy

Traditional Strategy

Opportunity Strategy

Strategic Technology Transfer and Sustainable Development

Discussion Questions

Overseas Expansion and Technology Transfer

Special Features of Technology Transfer Overseas

Historical Background to Overseas Technology Transfer

Overseas Expansion and Conditions of Technology Transfer

Strategy in Technology Transfer

Statistics of Overseas Expansion

The Content of Technology Transfer

Important Considerations in Overseas Technology Transfer

Procedures of Technology Transfer

Future Trends in Overseas Technology Transfer

Discussion Questions

Technology Transfer and Legal Affairs

Function of Legal Affairs in Technology Transfer

Example Framework of Agreement Covering Technology Transfer

The States of Technology Transfer

The Basic Agreement

The Technological License Agreement

The Technical Staff Dispatch Agreement

The Technical and Operation Staff Training Agreement

The Engineering Agreement

The Plant Construction Agreement

The Machinery Procurement Agreement

Common Points to Note in the Various Agreements’ Legal Affairs Articles

Party to the Agreement

Signer to the Agreement

Effective Period

Agreement Transfer (Assignment)

Governing Law

Controlling Text

Entire Agreement

Supplement to or Amendment of Agreement

Force Majeure

Termination of Agreement

Settlement of Disputes


Discussion Questions

Technology Transfer from Participants’ Viewpoints

Background of Technology Transfer

The Scope of This Chapter

Japan’s Needs for Technology Transfer

Asian Nations’ Needs for Technology Transfer

New Technology Transfer—Issues That Should Be Tackled

A Technology Transfer Survey

Purpose of the Investigation

Survey Outline

Results from the Survey

Issues as Seen by Receiving Sides

Issues as Seen by Transferring Sides

Country-Specific Issues

Road Map for Resolving Problems

Differences between the Transferring and Receiving Sides

Issues Arising at the Individual Level

Cause 1: The Personality of the Individual in Charge

Cause 2: Not Understanding the Technology Transfer Agreement and Its Range

Cause 3: A Language Barrier

Cause 4: Insufficient Basic Learning and Skills on the Receiving Side; and also

Cause 5: Inherent Problems in the Transfer Process

Issues Arising at Transferring Company Level

Cause 1: Unclear Agreement Documents and Lack of Mutual Understanding

Cause 2: Inadequate Risk Management

Cause 3: Agreement Documents Not Anticipating All Problems

Cause 4: Difficulties in the Management of Technology (MOT)

Issues Arising at an Educational Level

Cause 1: Insufficient Basic Education

Cause 2: Shortage of Cultural Exchange Education

Cause 3: A Language Barrier

Issues Arising at Local and National Levels

Cause 1: The Business Environment and Laws of the Receiving Country

Cause 2: Insufficient National Support

Communication and Language Barriers

Discussion Questions

Overseas Expansion Technology Decision Making

Overseas Expansion and the Learning Curve

A Way of Thinking to Underpin Overseas Expansion

Is the Learning Speed Different Overseas?

Decisions to Be Made When Expanding Overseas

Problems after Transfer

Overseas Expansion Decision Making Using Block Diagrams

Benefits of Block Diagrams

A Costing Example, with Quality and Defect Rate Constraints

Discussion Questions

Example of Shipbuilding Industry in Overseas Technology Transfer

General Survey of Shipbuilding Transfers and Selection of Successful and Unsuccessful Cases

Comparison Measures

Survey Results

Selections of Successful and Unsuccessful Cases

Case Study 1: Tsuneishi Heavy Industries

Background to Overseas Expansion

Selection of the Place

Selection of Local Partners

Technology Transfer in THI

Case Study 2: Technical Cooperation in Shipbuilding to Indonesia

Outline of Indonesia’s Shipbuilding Industry

Development of Indonesian Shipbuilding Industry

An Initial Success Story (the Origin of the Indonesian Shipbuilding Industry)

The Caraka Jaya, Mina Jaya, and Other Projects

Japanese Assistance to Indonesian Shipbuilding Industry

Problems of Indonesian Shipbuilding Development

Problems of National Projects

Problems of Alienation from the Needs of the Shipping Industry

Management Problems

Methods for Introduction of Technology


Tacit Knowledge

Construction Strategies

Supply Chain Problems

Motivation and Management Problems

Discussion Questions

Example of Overseas Expansion (Food Machinery)

The Subsidiary Companies’ Products

Manufacturing Effectiveness and Costs

Other Factors to Consider

Overseas Expansion Example: Thailand


Discussion Questions


About the Authors

Yasuo Yamane received his undergraduate engineering education from Hiroshima University before taking a position as a machine tool designer with the Toshiba Machine Tool Company. He gained his doctoral degree, again from Hiroshima, in 1980, before commencing an academic career. He has been a professor (1983-present), Dean of the Graduate School of Engineering (2005-2009), and the Director of Hiroshima University’s Venture Business Laboratory (2000-2003) and Collaborative Research Centre (2003-2005). He is currently (2009-present) the Vice President of Hiroshima University with a special responsibility for international affairs. It is this broad background experience, added to his career-long special researches in metal machining, machine tool design, and technology transfer, that has given him the insights and desire to develop the present book’s scope and contents. He is also a co-author of the advanced level text book Metal Machining: Theory and Applications.

Tom Childs was the lead-author of the book Metal Machining: Theory and Applications. He received his undergraduate and postgraduate degrees from Cambridge University. From 1989 until his retirement in 2008 was Professor of Manufacturing Engineering in the School of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Leeds. He has published some 200 papers in the areas of metal machining and more generally on friction and wear in engineering components. He has spent three extensive periods as guest scholar / visiting professor in Japan, at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Osaka University and most recently Hiroshima University. It is these and other exchanges that have given him an interest and insight into the origins of Japanese manufacturing skills and culture (sometimes described by the word ‘monozukuri’ in Japan) and which underpin his co-authorship of this book.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Quality Control
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Workplace Culture
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Engineering