As computational hardware continues to develop at a rapid pace, quantitative computations are playing an increasingly essential role in the study of biomolecular systems. One of the most important challenges that the field faces is to develop the next generation of computational models that strike the proper balance of computational efficiency and
QM and QM/MM Methods. Polarizable continuum models for (bio)molecular electrostatics: Basic theory and recent developments for macromolecules and simulations. A modified divide-and-conquer linear-scaling quantum force field with multipolar charge densities. Explicit polarization theory. Effective fragment potential method. Quantum mechanical methods for quantifying and analyzing non-covalent interactions and for force-field development. Force field development with density-based energy decomposition analysis. Atomistic Models. Differential geometry-based solvation and electrolyte transport models for biomolecular modeling: a review. Explicit inclusion of induced polarization in atomistic force fields based on the classical Drude oscillator model. Multipolar force fields for atomistic simulations. Quantum mechanics based polarizable force field for proteins. Status of the Gaussian electrostatic model, a density-based polarizable force field. Water models: Looking forward by looking backward. Coarse-Grained Models. A physics-based coarse-grained model with electric multipoles. Coarse-grained membrane force field based on Gay-Berne potential and electric multipoles. Perspectives on the coarse-grained models of DNA. RNA coarse-grained model theory.