Over two decades, on two continents, the authors have struggled to define and perfect the therapeutic methods of Habib Davanloo. Between the two of them, they run active training groups in San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., London, Amsterdam, Warsaw and Scandinavia. In individual practice, in teaching situations and in partnered study, they have worked carefully to translate the theory and application of the revolutionary clinician's approach. This textbook defines the terms: observing ego, attentive ego, punitive superego, transference, transference resistance, unconscious therapeutic alliance, working alliance, unconscious impulse, in very precise and clinically meaningful ways. David Malan advised that Davanloo's technique needs to be modified and softened if it is to be accepted by the majority of therapists Readers will discover that the authors have surpassed Malan's advice and have taken the practice of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy to a new plateau.