3rd Edition

Mathematics Manual for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators Basic Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Operators

By Frank R. Spellman Copyright 2023
    328 Pages 55 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    328 Pages 55 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    To properly operate a waterworks or wastewater treatment plant and to pass the examination for a waterworks/wastewater operator’s license, it is necessary to know how to perform certain calculations. All operators, at all levels of licensure, need a basic understanding of arithmetic and problem-solving techniques to solve the problems they typically encounter in the workplace.

    Hailed on its first publication as a masterly account written in an engaging, highly readable, user-friendly style, the fully updated Mathematics Manual for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators: Basic Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Operators introduces and reviews fundamental concepts critical to qualified operators. It builds a strong foundation based on theoretical math concepts, which it then applies to solving practical problems for both water and wastewater operations.


    • Provides a strong foundation based on theoretical math concepts, which it then applies to solving practical problems for both water and wastewater operations.

    • Updated throughout and with several new practical problems added.

    • Provides illustrative examples for commonly used waterworks and wastewater treatment operations covering unit process operations found in today’s treatment facilities.

    1. Introduction. 1.1 The 411 on Mathematics. 1.2. Dimensional Analysis. 2. Basic Units of Measurement, Conversions. 2.1 Setting the Stage. 2.2 Units of Measurement. 2.3 Conversion Factors. 2.4. Conversions. 2.5. Wire-to-Water Calculations. 2.6. Advanced Units of Measurement and Conversions. 3. Sequence of Operations. 3.1. Sequence of Operations—Rules. 3.2. Sequence of Operations—Examples. 4. Fractions, Decimals & Percent. 4.1. Fractions. 4.2. Decimals. 4.3. Percent. 5. Rounding & Significant Digits. 5.1. Rounding Numbers. 5.2. Determining Significant Figures. 6. Powers of Ten and Exponents. 6.1. Rounding Numbers. 6.2. Determining Significant Figures. 7. Averages (Arithmetic Mean) & Median. 7.1. Averages. 7.2. Median. 8. Solving for the Unknown. 8.1. Equations. 8.2. Axioms. 8.3. Solving Equations. 8.4. Setting Up Equations. 9. Ratio/Proportion. 9.1. Ratio. 9.2. Proportion. 9.3. Working with Ratio and Proportion. 10. Electrical Calculations. 10.1. Electrical Calculations. 10.2. Series D-C Circuit Characteristics. 10.3. General Series Circuit Analysis. 10.4. Parallel D-C Circuits. 11. Circumference, Area & Volume. 11.1. Perimeter and Circumference. 11.2. Area. 11.3. Volume. 12. Force, Pressure & Head, Velocity Calculations. 12.1. Force and Pressure. 12.2. Head. 12.3. Velocity. 13. Mass Balance & Measuring Plant Performance. 13.1. Mass Balance for Settling Tanks. 13.2. Mass Balance Using BOD Removal. 13.3. Measuring Plant Balance. 14. Pumping Calculations. 14.1. Basic Water Hydraulics Calculations. 14.2. Basic Pumping Calculations. 14.3. Positive Displacement Pumps. 14.4. Pumping Practice Problems. 15. Water Source & Storage Calculations. 15.1. Water Source Calculations. 15.2. Water Storage. 15.3. Water Storage Calculations. 15.4. Copper Sulfate Dosing. 16. Waste/Wastewater Laboratory Calculations. 16.1. Faucet Flow Estimation. 16.2. Service Line Flushing. 16.3. Composite Sampling Calculation (Proportioning Factor). 16.4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Calculations.  16.5. Moles and Molarity. 16.6. Normality. 16.7. Settleability (Activated Biosolids Solids). 16.8. Settleable Solids. 16.9. Biosolids Total Solids, Fixed Solids and Volatile Solids. 16.10. Wastewater Suspended Solids and Volatile Suspended Solids. 16.11. Biosolids Volume Index (BVI) & Biosolids Density Index (BDI). 16.12. Chemical Dosage Calculations. 16.13. Laboratory Example Problems. 17. Workbook Practice Problems. 17.1. Basic Math Operations. 17.2. Fundamental Math Operations (Water/Wastewater).


    Frank R. Spellman is a retired assistant professor of environmental health at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, and the author of more than 160 books covering topics ranging from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to all areas of environmental science and occupational health. He consults on homeland security vulnerability assessments for critical infrastructures, including water/wastewater facilities, and conducts audits for Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Environmental Protection Agency inspections throughout the country. Dr. Spellman lectures on sewage treatment, water treatment, and homeland security, as well as on safety topics, throughout the country and teaches water/wastewater operator short courses at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg.