4th Edition

Measurement and Detection of Radiation




ISBN 9781482215496
Published April 24, 2015 by CRC Press
606 Pages - 380 B/W Illustrations

USD $160.00

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Book Description

A Sound Introduction to Radiation Detection and Measurement for Newcomers to Nuclear Science and Engineering

Since the publication of the bestselling third edition, there have been advances in the field of radiation detection, most notably in practical applications. Incorporating these important developments, Measurement and Detection of Radiation, Fourth Edition provides the most up-to-date and accessible introduction to radiation detector materials, systems, and applications.

New to the Fourth Edition

  • New chapters on nuclear forensics and nuclear medicine instrumentation, covering basic principles and applications as well as open-ended problems that encourage more in-depth research
  • Updated references and bibliographies
  • New and expanded problems

As useful to students and nuclear professionals as its popular predecessors, this fourth edition continues to carefully explain the latest radiation detector technology and measurement techniques. It also discusses the correct ways to perform measurements and analyze results following current health physics procedures.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Radiation Measurements
What Is Meant by Radiation?
Statistical Nature of Radiation Emission
Errors and Accuracy and Precision of Measurements
Types of Errors
Nuclear Instrumentation

Errors of Radiation Counting
Introduction
Definition of Probability
Basic Probability Theorems
Probability Distributions and Random Variables
Location Indexes (Mode, Median, Mean)
Dispersion Indexes, Variance, and Standard Deviation
Covariance and Correlation
Binomial Distribution
Poisson Distribution
Normal (Gaussian) Distribution
Lorentzian Distribution
Standard, Probable, and Other Errors
Arithmetic Mean and Its Standard Error
Confidence Limits
Propagation of Errors
Goodness of Data—χ2 Criterion—Rejection of Data
Statistical Error of Radiation Measurements
Standard Error of Counting Rates
Methods of Error Reduction
Minimum Detectable Activity
Detector Dead-Time Correction and Measurement of Dead Time
Loss-Free Counting and Zero Dead Time

Review of Atomic and Nuclear Physics
Introduction
Elements of Relativistic Kinematics
Atoms
Nuclei
Nuclear Binding Energy
Nuclear Energy Levels
Energetics of Nuclear Decays
Radioactive Decay Law
Nuclear Reactions
Fission

Energy Loss and Penetration of Radiation through Matter
Introduction
Mechanisms of Charged-Particle Energy Loss
Stopping Power due to Ionization and Excitation
Energy Loss due to Bremsstrahlung Emission
Calculation of dE/dx for a Compound or Mixture
Range of Charged Particles
Stopping Power and Range of Heavy Ions (Z > 2, A > 4)
Interactions of Photons with Matter
Interactions of Neutrons with Matter

Gas-Filled Detectors
Introduction
Relationship between High Voltage and Charge Collected
Various Types of Gas-Filled Detectors
Ionization Chambers
Proportional Counters
Geiger–Müller Counters
Gas-Flow Detectors
Rate Meters
General Comments about Construction of Gas-Filled Detectors
Applications of Gas-Filled Detectors

Scintillation Detectors
Introduction
Inorganic (Crystal) Scintillators
Organic Scintillators
Gaseous Scintillators
Relationship between Pulse Height and Energy and Type of Incident Particle
Photomultiplier Tube
Assembly of a Scintillation Detector and the Role of Light Pipes
Dead Time of Scintillation Detectors
Sources of Background in a Scintillation Detector
Phoswich Detector

Semiconductor Detectors
Introduction
Electrical Classification of Solids
Semiconductors
P–N Junction
Different Types of Semiconductor Detectors
Radiation Damage to Semiconductor Detectors

Relative and Absolute Measurements
Introduction
Geometry Effects
Source Effects
Detector Effects
Relationship between Counting Rate and Source Strength
Reference Materials for Relative and Absolute Measurements

Introduction to Spectroscopy
Introduction
Definition of Energy Spectra
Measurement of an Integral Spectrum with a Discriminator
Measurement of a Differential Spectrum with a Single-Channel Analyzer
Relationship between Pulse-Height Distribution and Energy Spectrum
Energy Resolution of a Detection System
Determination of the Energy Resolution: The Response Function
Importance of Good Energy Resolution
Brief Description of a Multichannel Analyzer
Calibration of a Multichannel Analyzer

Electronics
Introduction
Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance, and Impedance
Differentiating Circuit
Integrating Circuit
Delay Lines
Pulse Shaping
Timing
Coincidence–Anticoincidence Measurements
Pulse-Shape Discrimination
Preamplifiers
Amplifiers
Analog-to-Digital Converters
Multiparameter Analyzers
High Count Rates
Digital Processing
Data Manipulation
International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Electronics Manuals

Data Analysis Methods
Introduction
Curve Fitting
Interpolation Schemes
Least-Squares Fitting
Folding and Unfolding
Data Smoothing
Quality Assurance and Quality Control

Photon (γ-Ray and X-Ray) Spectroscopy
Introduction
Modes of Energy Deposition in the Detector
Efficiency of X-Ray and γ-Ray Detectors: Definitions
Detection of Photons with NaI(Tl) Scintillation Detectors
Detection of Gammas with Ge Detectors
Detection of X-Rays with a Si(Li) Detector
CdTe, CZT, Hgl2, LaBr, and LaCl2 Detectors as Gamma Spectrometers

Charged-Particle Spectroscopy
Introduction
Energy Straggling
Electron Spectroscopy
Alpha, Proton, Deuteron, and Triton Spectroscopy
Heavy-Ion (Z > 2) Spectroscopy
Time-of-Flight Spectrometer
Detector Telescopes (E dE/dx Detectors)
Position-Sensitive Detectors

Neutron Detection and Spectroscopy
Introduction
Neutron Detection by A (n, Charged Particle) Reaction
Fission Chambers
Neutron Detection by Foil Activation
Measurement of a Neutron Energy Spectrum by Proton Recoil
Detection of Fast Neutrons Using Threshold Activation Reactions
Neutron Energy Measurement with a Crystal Spectrometer
Time-of-Flight Method
Compensated Ion Chambers
Self-Powered Neutron Detectors
Concluding Remarks

Activation Analysis and Related Techniques
Introduction
Selection of the Optimum Nuclear Reaction
Preparation of the Sample for Irradiation
Sources of Radiation
Irradiation of the Sample
Counting of the Sample
Analysis of the Results
Sensitivity of Activation Analysis
Interference Reactions
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Activation Analysis Method
Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis
Neutron Depth Profile
Neutron Radiography

Health Physics Fundamentals
Introduction
Units of Exposure and Absorbed Dose
Relative Biological Effectiveness: Dose Equivalent
Dosimetry for Radiation External to the Body
Dosimetry for Radiation inside the Body
Internal Dose Rate Time Dependence: Biological Half-Life
Biological Effects of Radiation
Radiation Protection Guides and Exposure Limits
Health Physics Instruments
Proper Use of Radiation
Health Physics within Nuclear Power Plants and Radiological Facilities

Nuclear Forensics
Introduction
Nuclear Forensics Instrumentation
Chronometry
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Used for Radiation Detection

Instrumentation in Nuclear Medicine
Introduction
Areas of Nuclear Medicine
Imaging Technologies
Dose Calibrator
Novel Radiation Detection Systems in Nuclear Medicine
Production of Isotopes by Accelerators or Nuclear Reactors
Commercially Available Nuclear Medicine Imaging Systems

Appendices

Index

Problems, References, and Bibliography appear at the end of each chapter.

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Author(s)

Biography

Nicholas Tsoulfanidis is a nuclear engineering professor emeritus of the Missouri University of Science & Technology and an adjunct professor at the University of Nevada, Reno. He is an active member and Fellow of the American Nuclear Society and the author of the book The Nuclear Fuel Cycle. He was the editor of the international journal Nuclear Technology from 1997 to 2015. He has been a recipient of the Glenn Murphy Award from the Nuclear and Radiological Division of the American Society of Engineering Education and the Holly Compton Award from the American Nuclear Society. His research focuses on radiation transport, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle.

Sheldon Landsberger is a professor in the Nuclear and Radiation Engineering Program in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, where he currently holds the Texas Atomic Energy Research Foundation Professorship in the Cockrell School of Engineering. An active member of the American Nuclear Society, he has been a recipient of the Glenn Murphy Award from the Nuclear and Radiological Division of the American Society of Engineering Education and the Holly Compton Award from the American Nuclear Society. His experimental research projects encompass fundamental nuclear physics, applied nuclear analytical techniques in environmental applications, and nuclear forensics.

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Author - Nicholas  Tsoulfanidis
Author

Nicholas Tsoulfanidis

Adjunct Professor, University of Nevada-Reno (UNR)
Reno, NV 89511, NV, USA

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Reviews

"This textbook is a must-have for everyone who studies, teaches, or uses cutting-edge applications of radiation detection and measurements."
—Miltos Alamaniotis, Ph.D., School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University

"The organization of the book is ideal for undergraduate nuclear engineering laboratory classes, and I think it is very well written. Also, it has many examples of calculations that definitely enhance one’s ability to understand the material."
—Lawrence F. Miller, Professor of Nuclear Engineering, The University of Tennessee

"… an excellent teaching resource for both undergraduate and graduate courses in radiation detection. The numerous examples and exercises have helped my students learn to apply fundamental and advanced concepts in radiation detection. I have used the third edition in my classes for the past four years, and I look forward to the publication of the new edition."
—John Mattingly, Professor, Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University

"Nuclear instrumentation and measurement are key aspects that contribute to the quality of scientific programs in the fields of physics, energy, fuel cycle, waste management, safeguards, and homeland security. Furthermore, measurements relying on nuclear physics now play an important role in various fields of application such as biology, medicine, and the environment. Nicholas Tsoulfanidis and Sheldon Landsberger through this fourth edition successfully realize the challenge to cover all these application areas that use instrumentation and radiation detection."
—Prof. Dr. Abdallah Lyoussi, National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INSTN), French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA)

"… concise and comprehensive ... very useful for students, academics and professionals in the development and application of sensors for ionising radiation and beyond."
—Dr Bjoern Seitz, School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Glasgow

"This one-of-a-kind book is invaluable in teaching laboratory-based introductory courses in radiation measurement techniques. The new chapters on nuclear forensics and nuclear medicine are important additions to the previous edition’s chapters on radiation measurement applications."
—Eric Benton, Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University

"One of the very few books with cross sections, efficiencies, major reactions, standard detectors … all together. A single stand-alone resource for advanced undergraduates through research level with full references."
—Dr. Duane Doty, Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge

"An excellent text that covers counting statistics, radiation interactions with matter, and the basics of radiation detector design."
—Steven R. Biegalski, Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin

"A large amount of graphic illustrations and in-text examples make it an excellent textbook or reference for teaching undergraduate or graduate students. It nicely covers the relevant areas in ionizing radiation detection, and gives a good introduction to emerging areas in nuclear detection such as nuclear forensics and nuclear medicine. I highly endorse the book."
—Lei R. Cao, Director, Nuclear Analysis and Radiation Sensor Lab, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University

"… offers the perfect level of material for undergraduates in the radiological sciences."
—David M. Hamby, Professor, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University