Generally speaking, the use of remote sensing imagery will reduce field work. Remote sensing imagery gives an overall view of the forest in addition to more detailed information, the extent of which depends mainly on scale and film used in case of analogue data, and mainly on pixel size in case of digital data. This book deals with measurements and estimations of forest stand parameters using aerial photographic, aircraft and satellite scanning data, radar and laser imagery. It includes technical and statistical information of practical examples from both temperate and tropical forests. Statistical analysis of measurement data and sampling techniques are given when required. The obtained results are compared with those from other techniques, showing their relative advantage or disadvantage.
Table of Contents
Preface INTRODUCTION MEASUREMENT AND ESTIMATION OF FOREST STAND PARAMETERS USING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS Introduction Area Number of trees Tree height Diameter at 1.30 m(DBH) Age Site Volume Two-phase regression sampling for spruce plus fir volume estimation using aerial photographs Stratified two-phase regression sampling for spruce timber volume estimation using orthophotos Three-phase cluster sampling for area proportion and timber volume estimation of Norway spruce plus white fir using orthophotos Two-stage unequal probability sampling using orthophotos for timber volume estimation of Norway spruce plus white fir. Influence of the number of secondary sampling units (SSUs) on the coefficient of variation and the correlation coefficient Two-stage pps sampling design for the estimation of spruce plus fir volume, using orthophotos. Influence of the number of secondary sampling units (SSUs) on office and field time. Influence of PSU-area on CV Two-phase aerial photo-field regression sample versus simple random field sample for timber volume and increment of European beech Two-phase regression sampling using aerial photographs for mean periodic timber volume increment of Norway spruce from permanent sample plots Aerial photographs and increment cores for determining volume growth and basal area growth of white fir ESTIMATION OF FOREST STAND PARAMETERS USING MULTISPECTRAL SCANNING IMAGERY AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS Introduction Stratified five-stage unequal probability (pps) sampling using space and aircraft imagery and field data Three-stage pps sampling using Landsat-1 (=ERTS-1), photographic and field data Three-stage sampling using LANDSAT-2 MSS, aerial photography and field data for regional forest inventories in Black Forest Two-stage versus simple stratified sampling for the estimation of Norway spruce volume using LANDSAT-2 MSS and orthophotos LANDSAT-5 T.M. and orthophotos for forest classification and spruce plus fir timber volume estimation ESTIMATION OF FOREST STAND PARAMETERS USING RADIATION VALUES AS INDEPENDENT VARIABLES IN LANDSAT-5 TM AND SPOT-1 BANDS Introduction Research experiments Comments ESTIMATION OF FOREST STAND PARAMETERS USING RADAR SYSTEMS Introduction Fundamentals of radar system Estimating forest stand parameters from radar backscatter ESTIMATION OF FOREST STAND PARAMETERS USING LASER SYSTEMS Introduction Estimation of tree height, plot volume and plot biomass Comments References Appendices