Mechanical Design of Machine Components  book cover
2nd Edition

Mechanical Design of Machine Components

ISBN 9781439887806
Published January 8, 2015 by CRC Press
1024 Pages 808 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Mechanical Design of Machine Components, Second Edition strikes a balance between theory and application, and prepares students for more advanced study or professional practice. It outlines the basic concepts in the design and analysis of machine elements using traditional methods, based on the principles of mechanics of materials. The text combines the theory needed to gain insight into mechanics with numerical methods in design. It presents real-world engineering applications, and reveals the link between basic mechanics and the specific design of machine components and machines.

Divided into three parts, this revised text presents basic background topics, deals with failure prevention in a variety of machine elements and covers applications in design of machine components as well as entire machines. Optional sections treating special and advanced topics are also included.

Key Features of the Second Edition:

  • Incorporates material that has been completely updated with new chapters, problems, practical examples and illustrations
  • Places a strong emphasis is on the fundamentals of mechanics of materials as they relate to the study of machine design
  • Provides thorough coverage of machine components, including their applications in modern engineering, and some discussion of entire machines
  • Presents material selection charts and tables as an aid in specific applications
  • Contains selective chapters that include case studies of various components and machines, as well as some open-ended problems
  • Includes applied finite element analysis in design, offering an introduction to this useful tool for computer-oriented examples
  • Addresses the ABET design criteria in a systematic manner
  • Covers optional MATLAB solutions tied to the book and student learning resources on the CRC website

Mechanical Design of Machine Components, Second Edition helps you gain a grasp of the fundamentals of machine design and the ability to apply these fundamentals to new engineering problems.

Table of Contents

Section I Basics


Scope of the Book

Mechanical Engineering Design

Design Process

Design Analysis

Problem Formulation and Computation

Factor of Safety and Design Codes

Units and Conversion

Loading Classes and Equilibrium

Free-Body Diagrams and Load Analysis

Case Studies in Engineering

Work, Energy, and Power

Stress Components

Normal and Shear Strains




Material Property Definitions

Static Strength

Hooke’s Law and Modulus of Elasticity

Generalized Hooke’s Law

Thermal Stress–Strain Relations

Temperature and Stress–Strain Properties

Moduli of Resilience and Toughness

Dynamic and Thermal Effects


Processes to Improve Hardness and the Strength of Metals

General Properties of Metals

General Properties of Nonmetals


Stress and Strain


Stresses in Axially Loaded Members

Direct Shear Stress and Bearing Stress

Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

Stress in Members in Torsion

Shear and Moment in Beams

Stresses in Beams

Design of Beams

Plane Stress

Combined Stresses

Plane Strain

Measurement of Strain; Strain Rosette

Stress-Concentration Factors

Importance of Stress-Concentration Factors in Design

Three-Dimensional Stress

Equations of Equilibrium for Stress

Strain–Displacement Relations: Exact Solutions


Deflection and Impact


Deflection of Axially Loaded Members

Angle of Twist of Shafts

Deflection of Beams by Integration

Beam Deflections by Superposition

Beam Deflection by the Moment-Area Method

Impact Loading

Longitudinal and Bending Impact

Torsional Impact

Bending of Thin Plates

Deflection of Plates by Integration


Energy Methods and Stability


Strain Energy

Strain Energy in Common Members

Work–Energy Method

Castigliano’s Theorem

Statically Indeterminate Problems

Virtual Work Principle

Use of Trigonometric Series in Energy Methods

Buckling of Columns

Critical Stress in a Column

Initially Curved Columns

Eccentric Loads and the Secant Formula

Design Formulas for Columns


Energy Methods Applied to Buckling

Buckling of Rectangular Plates


Section II Failure Prevention

Static Failure Criteria and Reliability


Introduction to Fracture Mechanics

Stress–Intensity Factors

Fracture Toughness

Yield and Fracture Criteria

Maximum Shear Stress Theory

Maximum Distortion Energy Theory

Octahedral Shear Stress Theory

Comparison of the Yielding Theories

Maximum Principal Stress Theory

Mohr’s Theory

Coulomb–Mohr Theory


Normal Distributions

Reliability Method and Margin of Safety


Fatigue Failure Criteria


Nature of Fatigue Failures

Fatigue Tests

S–N Diagrams

Estimating the Endurance Limit and Fatigue Strength

Modified Endurance Limit

Endurance Limit Reduction Factors

Fluctuating Stresses

Theories of Fatigue Failure

Comparison of the Fatigue Criteria

Design for Simple Fluctuating Loads

Design for Combined Fluctuating Loads

Prediction of Cumulative Fatigue Damage

Fracture Mechanics Approach to Fatigue


Surface Failure





Wear Equation

Contact-Stress Distributions

Spherical and Cylindrical Surfaces in Contact

Maximum Stress in General Contact

Surface-Fatigue Failure

Prevention of Surface Damage


Section III Applications

Shafts and Associated Parts


Materials Used for Shafting

Design of Shafts in Steady Torsion

Combined Static Loadings on Shafts

Design of Shafts for Fluctuating and Shock Loads

Interference Fits

Critical Speed of Shafts

Mounting Parts

Stresses in Keys



Universal Joints


Bearings and Lubrication


Part A: Lubrication and Journal Bearings


Types of Journal Bearings

Forms of Lubrication

Lubricant Viscosity

Petroff’s Bearing Equation

Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory

Design of Journal Bearings

Lubricant Supply to Journal Bearings

Heat Balance of Journal Bearings

Materials for Journal Bearings

Part B: Rolling-Element Bearings

Types and Dimensions of Rolling Bearings

Rolling Bearing Life

Equivalent Radial Load

Selection of Rolling Bearings

Materials and Lubricants of Rolling Bearings

Mounting and Closure of Rolling Bearings


Spur Gears


Geometry and Nomenclature


Gear Tooth Action and Systems of Gearing

Contact Ratio and Interference

Gear Trains

Transmitted Load

Bending Strength of a Gear Tooth: The Lewis Formula

Design for the Bending Strength of a Gear Tooth: The AGMA Method

Wear Strength of a Gear Tooth: The Buckingham Formula

Design for the Wear Strength of a Gear Tooth: The AGMA Method

Materials for Gears

Gear Manufacturing


Helical, Bevel, and Worm Gears


Helical Gears

Helical Gear Geometry

Helical Gear Tooth Loads

Helical Gear Tooth Bending and Wear Strengths

Bevel Gears

Tooth Loads of Straight Bevel Gears

Bevel Gear Tooth Bending and Wear Strengths

Worm Gearsets

Worm Gear Bending and Wear Strengths

Thermal Capacity of Worm Gearsets


Belts, Chains, Clutches, and Brakes


Part A: Flexible Elements


Belt Drives

Belt Tension Relationships

Design of V-Belt Drives

Chain Drives

Common Chain Types

Part B: High Friction Devices

Materials for Brakes and Clutches

Internal Expanding Drum Clutches and Brakes

Disk Clutches and Brakes

Cone Clutches and Brakes

Band Brakes

Short-Shoe Drum Brakes

Long-Shoe Drum Brakes

Energy Absorption and Cooling


Mechanical Springs


Torsion Bars

Helical Tension and Compression Springs

Spring Materials

Helical Compression Springs

Buckling of Helical Compression Springs

Fatigue of Springs

Design of Helical Compression Springs for Fatigue Loading

Helical Extension Springs

Torsion Springs

Leaf Springs

Miscellaneous Springs


Power Screws, Fasteners, and Connections


Standard Thread Forms

Mechanics of Power Screws

Overhauling and Efficiency of Power Screws

Ball Screws

Threaded Fastener Types

Stresses in Screws

Bolt Tightening and Preload

Tension Joints under Static Loading

Gasketed Joints

Determining the Joint Stiffness Constants

Tension Joints under Dynamic Loading

Riveted and Bolted Joints Loaded in Shear

Shear of Rivets or Bolts due to Eccentric Loading


Welded Joints Subjected to Eccentric Loading

Brazing and Soldering

Adhesive Bonding


Miscellaneous Mechanical Components


Basic Relations

Thick-Walled Cylinders under Pressure

Compound Cylinders: Press or Shrink Fits

Disk Flywheels

Thermal Stresses in Cylinders

Exact Stresses in Curved Beams

Curved Beam Formula

Circular Plates

Thin Shells of Revolution

Special Cases of Shells of Revolution

Pressure Vessels and Piping

Filament-Wound Pressure Vessels

Buckling of Cylindrical and Spherical Shells


Finite Element Analysis in Design


Bar Element

Formulation of the Finite Element Method

Beam and Frame Elements

Two-Dimensional Elements

Triangular Element

Plane Stress Case Studies

Axisymmetric Element


Case Studies in Machine Design


Floor Crane with Electric Winch

High-Speed Cutter



Answers to Selected Problems



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Ansel C. Ugural is a visiting professor of mechanical engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey. He has held faculty positions at Fairleigh Dickinson University, where he has served for two decades as a professor and chairman of the mechanical engineering department. Professor Ugural earned his MS in mechanical engineering and PhD in engineering mechanics from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He is the author of several books, including Stresses in Beams, Plates, and Shells (CRC Press, 3rd ed., 2010). In addition, he has published numerous articles in trade and professional journals.


"Ugural has written a very good, comprehensive technical book for machine design. The book covers every fundamental of mechanical design… The author helpfully offers some case studies in which the theory is connected with and implemented in practical application…"
—Choice, September 2015

"... a very good, comprehensive technical book for machine design. ... will be most valuable as a text for junior and senior undergraduate courses and a reference book for mechanical engineers in practice. Summing Up: Recommended. Undergraduates through professionals and practitioners."
—X. Le, Wentworth Institute of Technology, CHOICE

"Overall, the book covers the bases. …as complete as a machine design text can be… addressing basics, failure analysis, and a healthy variety of actual design elements and assemblages. The case studies provide particularly valuable insight into the design process as applied in the real world."
—Steven G. Hall, Associate Professor, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA

"…provides a good overview of the constituents of machine element design. The examples are interesting and illustrative."
—Andreas Almqvist, Associate Professor, Division of Machine Elements, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden

"The main strengths ... are that the book is written in an easy-to-understand English and that topics are explained rigorously. The book is well documented with references to research articles and gives good, broad but also deep insight into many subjects. ... Chapter 1 has a very good introduction to working as an engineer. The design phases are well written and understandable. ... Chapter 7.9 – 7.12 is very well written with a good introduction to using safety factors with the Goodman diagram, etc. This is not found in other books. ... [Overall,] the book covers a very broad area of mechanical engineering and still maintains good, in-depth coverage of the subjects. The book actually covers the syllabus of different courses, without the lecturer having to bring in additional reading."
—Jon Svenninggaard, VIA University College, Horsens, Denmark

"An excellent comprehensive textbook on mechanical design that includes the topics usually covered in a second course of mechanics of materials."
—Oussama Safadi, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA

"A valuable textbook for students who are interested in applying basic mechanics of materials knowledge to real-world problems."
—Yong Zhu, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA

"After using the first edition of this text for about a decade, I highly recommend this text in the field of mechanical design. Ugural gives us a clear and concise treatment of the subject; detailed chapter example problems with some appropriately place case studies. Also, his end of chapter problems reflects the chapter’s subject matter and example problems in a thoughtful and relevant manner."
—Gary H. McDonald, The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, USA

"I can say right now that I will use this textbook this fall. I have looked through it, and I am very impressed with it. … I will be placing an order through our bookstore for approximately 30 of these for the fall semester."
—G. Steve Tarrant, Montana Tech of the University of Montana

"Overall, I believe this book would make a great addition to the textbook references for the design engineer."
—Jeff A. Hawks, Ph.D., University of Nebraska-Lincoln

"Ugural provides a comprehensive text that is well-organized and straightforward, with practical problems to reinforce the concepts."
—Dr. Todd D Coburn, PhD, PE, DER, California State Polytechnic University Pomona