1st Edition

Mechanized Tunnelling in Urban Areas Design methodology and construction control

    528 Pages
    by CRC Press

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    Internationally, the mechanized excavation of tunnels has intensified in the last two decades, as the number of tunnels being constructed for subways and railway underpasses increases. The subject of mechanized tunnelling in urban areas has not previously received the attention that it deserves, despite there being specific hazards associated with the construction of tunnels in metropolitan areas, including poor ground conditions, water tables higher than the level of tunnels, and subsidence leading to damage to the existing structures on the surface. The application of technologies for achieving the stability of the tunnel and for minimizing surface settlement is described in this book. Accurate characterization of the ground; rigorous assessment and management of risk from design to maintenance; the correct choice of a tunnel boring machine and a plan for the advancement of the tunnel; specific excavation procedures and real-time monitoring of excavation parameters are all discussed in this thorough work.


    Introduction: tunnels in urban areas and the related challenges
    The opportunities
    The particular challenges of urban tunnelling
    The correct approach to success
    A brief history of mechanized tunnelling
    The scope of this book

    Initial risks: definition, analysis and management
    Basic definitions
    Sources of initial risk in mechanized urban tunneling
    Analysis and management of risks: the risk management plan
    Designing for the identified risk scenario
    Quantifying the risk of time and cost overruns at the design stage with the use of DAT
    Use of Plan for Advance of Tunnel (PAT) for controlling the residual risks 

    Selection of tunnel alignment with low-level risks
    The general layout of an urban tunnel
    Alignment constraints and specific functional requirements
    Constraints and peculiar characteristics of the urban environment relevant to the selection of a tunnel route
    Starting and arrival points, shield launching and receiving shafts, logistic work sites
    The relationship between the excavation of running tunnel by TBM and the construction of the stations

    The primary responses to the initial risks: a "city machine" and its essential characteristics
    Principles for making the macro choices
    The common solution: a "city machine"
    Essential components of a "city machine"
    Slurry and earth pressure balance shields: functioning principles and review of the state of the art
    Some considerations for the choice between HS and EPBS

    Tunnel design
    Prediction and control of tunnelling-induced settlements and assessment of their impacts
    The design of face-support pressure
    The design of precast concrete segmental lining
    Backfilling of the tail void

    The control of tunnel construction
    Updating and implementation of PAT
    Excavation control: the case of slurry/hydro shield (SS/HS)
    Excavation control: the case of earth pressure balance shield (EPBS)
    Integrated real-time monitoring system

    Health and safety
    General considerations
    TBM working environment
    Critical processes
    Additional critical elements

    Case histories
    EOLE project - Paris
    St. Petersburg metro
    Porto light metro
    Turin metro line 1
    SMART solution of Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
    High speed railway line of Nodo di Bologna


    Appendix 1 Type and characteristics of TBMs
    Appendix 2 TBM manufacturers from the new millennium
    Appendix 3 Geotechnical investigations for tunnelling in urban areas
    Appendix 4 Description of the principal elements of the 12 analytical methods for defining face-support pressure
    Appendix 5 An example of risk management plan for a job using slurry shield
    Appendix 6 Typical excavation procedures for EPB shield
    Appendix 7 The Italian experiences

    Contract and construction aspects

    Glossary of terms

    ''What is the best approach to controlling a TBM and what systematic and rigorous engineering controls should be employed? This book might well provide the answer for you.''

    ''An excellent read and valuable additon to anyone's library of tunnel construction books''

    Tunnels & Tunnelling International, April 2008