Melt Crystallization Technology: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Melt Crystallization Technology

1st Edition

By Tine Arkenbout-de Vroome

CRC Press

383 pages

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Hardback: 9781566761819
pub: 1995-05-02
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From the Author's Preface

There is a growing demand for ultrapure organic compounds such as fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and basic materials for use in the polymer industry. . . . In quite a number of cases, it is difficult or impossible to manufacture ultrapure organics efficiently using conventional separation techniques such as distillation. Moreover, conventional techniques usually require large amounts of energy.

To improve the purification efficiency of organics, special techniques based on crystallization from the melt have been developed. Melt crystallization meets industry's need for a highly selective separation process for organic compounds which operates at low enough temperatures to prevent thermal degradation. Melt crystallization processes have the added advantage that they are energy-efficient and ecologically sound.

Melt crystallization techniques appear to be particularly promising for upgrading organic materials and are one of the few routes that appear to be feasible for purifying starter materials for high-tech polymers. The aim of this book is to provide basic information on melt crystallization technology. . . . This monograph consists of three parts: 1. basic principles, 2. process options, and 3. technical equipment and applicability.

This new book is the first unified guide and reference to an important chemical process technology. It is comprehensive and organized for easy reference. More than 150 diagrammatic representations, flow charts and photographs illustrate equipment and processes. More than 40 tables provide useful reference data.

The Author

Dr. Arkenbout studied chemistry at the University of Utrecht, and joined TNO, the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research. He has specialized in research on new separation processes and has had thirty of his articles on this subject published. He recently retired from the position of manager of physical separation research, but has remained active in this field through affiliations with the Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry at the University of Nijmegen, the Laboratory for Process Equipment, Delft University of Technology, and TNO.

Table of Contents

Preface, Notation

I. Basic Principles

1. Prospects of Melt Crystallization

General Introduction The Method of Melt Crystallization Energy Efficiency, Environmental Impact Process Options Some Alternative Techniques

2. Basic Principles in Crystallization

Introduction Crystal Structure, Morphology Crystal Growth, Mechanisms

3. Thermodynamic Limits

Solid-Liquid Equilibria Product Purity Recovery Prediction of Eutectic Compositions Prediction of Miscibility in the Solid Phase Methods to Improve Recovery Conclusions

4. Kinetic Limits

Incorporation of Impurities into Crystals Effective and Integral Distribution Coefficient Purification Efficiency in Dependence on Process Conditions Purity Attainable by One Single Crystallization Operation

5. Further Purification

Scope of Techniques Washing Sweating Recrystallization

II. Process Options

6. Layer Growth

Normal Freezing Operation Principle Multistage Operation Continuous Layer Growth

7. Suspension Growth

Growth, Kinetics Proper Crystal Size Agglomeration, Breakage Approach to Technical Crystallizer Crystallizer Configuration Crystallizer Cascades

8. Crystal-Melt Separation

The Washing Operation Countercurrent Separation Columns Based on Gravity Transport The Kureha Continuous Crystal Purifier Wash-Columns Based on Forced Transport Two-Stage Crystal-Melt Separation Comparison between the Two Types of Wash-Columns

9. On the Choice of the Process Option

Crystal Layer Processes Suspension Growth Processes Flow Diagrams for Suspension Growth Comparison between Layer and Suspension Growth

10. Melt Crystallization Feasibility

Applicability Collection of Physical Data Orientating Tests Laboratory-Scale Experiments Pilot Plant Tests Technological Study

III. Technical Equipment, Applicability

11. Technical Equipment for Crystal Layer Growth

Survey of Commercially Available Equipment Commercial Static Layer Growth Processes Commercial Dynamic Layer Growth Processes

12. Technical Equipment for Suspension Growth

Survey of Commercially Available Equipment Installations with Gravity Transport Columns Installations with Forced Transport Columns

13. Technical Applicability

Scope of Technique Para-Xylene Acetic Acid Acrylic Acid Cyclohexane para-Dichlorobenzene Maleic Anhydride Phenol Caprolactam Naphthalene para-Chloronitrobenzene 4,4-Diphenylmethanediisocyanate (MDI) Survey of Technical Applications

14. Technical Implementation of Melt Crystallization

Introduction Increase of Product Purity Increase of Recovery Replacement of Solution Crystallization by Melt Crystallization Recovery of Solvents

15. Related Fields of Application

Introduction Freeze Concentration Dry Fractionation of Fats and Fatty Acids Dewaxing of Oils Use of Wash-Columns Outside Melt Crystallization

16. Status of Development, Future Outlook

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Textiles & Polymers