Membrane Technology: Sustainable Solutions in Water, Health, Energy and Environmental Sectors, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Membrane Technology

Sustainable Solutions in Water, Health, Energy and Environmental Sectors, 1st Edition

Edited by Sundergopal Sridhar

CRC Press

541 pages | 201 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2018-08-14
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Description

Contributed by multiple experts, the book covers the scientific and engineering aspects of membrane processes and systems.

It aims to cover basic concepts of novel membrane processes including membrane bioreactors, microbial fuel cell, forward osmosis, electro-dialysis and membrane contactors.

Maintains a pragmatic approach involving design, operation and cost analysis of pilot plants as well as scaled-up counterparts

Table of Contents

1. Processing of complex industrial effluents and gaseous mixtures through innovative membrane technology

S. Sridhar

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Case Study on Chloride Separation from Coke Oven Wastewater in Steel Industry

1.3 Recovery of Dimethyl Sulfoxide Solvent from Pharmaceutical Effluent

1.4 Decolorization of Aqueous Sodium Thiocyanate Solution in Acrylic Fiber Industry

1.5 Effluent Treatment for Chloralkali Industry

1.6 Application of Ultrafiltration in Wastewater Treatment

1.7 Separation of industrial off-gases and process gas mixtures

1.8 Conclusions and Future Perspectives

References

2 Comprehensive process solutions for chemical and allied industries using membranes

S. Mayor and S. Sridhar

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Milestones on industrial applications of membrane technology in India

2.3 Membrane development and scale-up

2.4 Industrial process solutions

2.5 Conclusions

References

3 An insight into various approaches towards flux enhancement and fouling mitigation of membranes during nano and ultrafiltration

Kaushik Nath and Tejal M Patel

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Principle and mechanism

3.3 Core issues: concentration polarization and membrane fouling

3.4 Feed pretreatment

3.5 Imparting fluid instabilities

3.6 Air sparging and gas slug

3.7 Membrane surface modification

3.8 Conclusions and future outlook Water

4 Fabrication and applications of functionalized membranes in drinking water treatment

Somak Chatterjee and Sirshendu De

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Synthesis and fabrication of organic-inorganic mixed matrix membranes

4.3 Application of organic-inorganic mixed matrix membranes for water purification

4.4 Cost analysis of mixed matrix membrane processes

4.5 Conclusions

Nomenclature

References

5 Promoting rural and urban welfare by water purification through compact membrane systems

B. Govardhan, Y.V.L. Ravikumar, Sankaracharya Sutar, S. Sridhar

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Overview of Water Purification Processes

5.3 Nanofiltration

5.4 Reverse Osmosis

5.5 Effect of operating parameters

5.6 Defluoridation in Rural Areas

5.8 Urban Deployments

5.9 Ultrafiltration for Purification of Surface Water

5.10 Concentration Polarization and Fouling

5.11 Membrane Cleaning and Storage

5.12 Conclusions

References

6 Ceramic membrane based community model plants for arsenic decontamination from ground water and quality drinking water supply

Sibdas Bandyopadhyay and Mainak Majumder

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Nature of the problem of arsenic contamination in ground water

6.3 Technologies for arsenic removal in drinking water

6.4 Membrane based processes for decontamination of arsenic

6.5 Ceramic membrane based process for decontamination of arsenic

6.6 Hybrid process for arsenic decontamination using low cost ceramic membrane

6.7 Pilot plant trials for treatment of arsenic contaminated natural ground water

6.8 Conclusions

References

7 Forward Osmosis: An efficient and economical alternative for water reclamation and concentration of food products & beverages

Ravindra Revanur

7.1 Introduction and Background

7.2 Key Membranes and Desired Properties for FO

7.3 Concentration polarization

7.4 Forward osmosis membrane properties

7.5 Forward osmosis Membrane Module Configurations: Advantages and Disadvantages

7.6 Effect of Draw

7.7 Conclusions

References

8 Low cost production of anti-diabetic and anti-obesity sweetener from stevia leaves by diafiltration membrane process

Shaik Nazia Bukke Vani, Suresh K. Bhargava, S. Sridhar

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Applications of stevia

8.3 Separation Processes for Stevia Isolation

8.4 Role of Membranes in Stevia Glycoside Isolation

8.5 Hexane extraction

8.6 Water extraction

8.7 Case study 1: Bench scale Experimental Trials

8.8 Case study 2: Pilot Scale Experimental Trials

8.9 Operation and Maintenance Costs

8.10 Conclusions and Future Scope

References

9 Microfiltration Membranes: Fabrication and Application

Barun Kumar Nandi, Mehabub Rahaman, Randeep Singh, Mihir Kumar Purkait

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Membrane materials and trade off

9.3 General methods for preparation of microfiltration membranes

9.4 Characterization Techniques

9.5 Applications of microfiltration membranes

9.6 Conclusions

References

10 Hemodialysis membranes for treatment of chronic kidney disease: State of the art and future prospects

N.L. Gayatri, N. Shiva Prasad, S. Sridhar

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Hemodialysis membranes

10.3 History of dialysis

10.4 Hemodialysis module design

10.5 Membrane formation

10.6 Drawbacks of Hemodialysis

10.7 Emerging Trends in Dialysis Research

10.8 Conclusions

References

11 Design of cost effective membrane devices for production of potable alkaline ionised water

Pavani Vadthya, M. Praveen, C. Sumana, S. Sridhar

11.1 Introduction

11.2 State of the Art of water electrolysis and electrolysers

11.3 Design of device for alkaline ionised water production

11.4 Performance of electrolysers

11.5 Economic analysis

11.6 Conclusions

References

12. Mass Transfer Modelling in Hollow Fiber Liquid Membrane Separation Processes

Biswajit Swaina, K K Singh and Anil Kumar Pabby

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Theory on Solute Transport in Liquid Membrane

12.3 Mass Transfer Modelling in Hollow Fiber Contactor

12.4 Conclusions and Future Perspective

References

13. Design of membrane systems using computational fluid dynamics and molecular modeling

Siddhartha Moulik, H. Rehana Anjum, S. Sridhar

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Overview of molecular modelling and computational fluid dynamics in membrane processes

13.3 Conclusions

References

14 Carbon polymer nanocomposite membranes as electrolytes for direct methanol fuel cells

Gutru Rambabu, Santosh kumar D. Bhat

14.1 Introduction to direct methanol fuel cells

14.2 Functionalized carbon nanoadditives in PEMs

14.3 Different Functionalization routes for additives

14.4 Fabrication of composite membranes

14.5 Effect of functionalized additives on membrane properties

14.6 Conclusions

References

15 Bioethanol Production in a Pervaporation Membrane Bioreactor

Anjali Jain, Ravi Dhabhai, Ajay K. Dalai, and Satyendra P. Chaurasia

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Production and consumption scenario of bioethanol

15.3 Lignocellulose as feedstock for bioethanol production

15.4 Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock

15.5 Fermentation

15.6 Membrane Bioreactor systems

15.7 Theory of pervaporation

15.8 Pervaporation membranes for extraction of ethanol from aqueous solutions

15.9 Bioethanol production in MBR

15.10 Economic assessment of the integrated fermentation-pervaporation process

15.11 Conclusions

References

16 Recovery of value added products in process industries through membrane contactors

M. Madhumala, Rosilda Selvin, S. Sridhar

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Introduction to Membrane Contactor Systems

16.3 Indigenous Membranes and Commercial Modules Investigated for Separation of Chemical Entities

16.4 Results and Discussion

16.5 Conclusions and Future Prospects

Nomenclature

References

17 Recent research trends in polymer nanocomposite proton exchange membranes for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices

A. Muthumeenal, M. Sri Abirami Saraswathi, D. Rana, A. Nagendran

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Veracities of Nafion in fuel cell and VRFB environments

17.3 Need for developing polymer nanocomposite membranes

17.4 Conclusions

17.5 Future Outlook

References

18 Polyion complex membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell applications

Dileep Kumar, Harsha Nagar, S. Sridhar

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Challenges facing fuel cells

18.3 Research trends in polymer electrolyte membranes for PEMFC and DMFC

18.4 Types of interactions in Acid-Base Blend Membranes

18.5 Membrane synthesis by Solution casting and Solvent evaporation method

18.6 Membrane characterization

18.7 Recent trends in acid-base blend membranes

18.8 Molecular dynamics simulation study for acid-base blend membrane

18.9 Conclusions

References

19 Integrated Membrane Technology for Promoting Zero Liquid Discharge in Process Industries

R. Saranya, P. Anand, S. Sridhar

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Current status of membrane processes for industrial growth

19.3 Membrane process integration for industrial sustainability

19.4 Breakthrough advancements of membrane processes in industries 19.5 Membrane Technology for facilitating zero liquid discharge (ZLD) in Industries 19.6 Potential of membrane technology towards ZLD

19.7 Advancements and Scope of membrane technology for ZLD

19.8 Emerging trends in state-of-art ZLD systems

19.9 Computational aspects in membrane processes

19.10 Conclusions

References

20 Electromembrane processes in water purification and energy generation

Sujay Chattopadhyay, Jogi Ganesh Dattatreya Tadimeti, Anusha Chandra, Bhuvanesh E

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Electrodialysis

20.3 Ion Exchange membranes

20.4 Mathematical representation of various fluxes in electrodialysis process

20.5 Current-voltage characteristics

20.6 Concentration polarization

20.7 LCD determination and parameters influencing LCD

20.8 Mass transfer enhancement in electrodialysis

20.9 Facilitation of electrodialysis

20.10 Role of mathematical modeling in electrodialysis

20.11 Challenges and proposed remedies in electrodialysis

20.12 Applications of electrodialysis

20.13 Bipolar membrane electrodialysis

20.14 Bipolar membrane preparation and characterization

20.15 Bipolar membrane applications

20.16 Capacitive deionization

20.17 Energy generation through reverse electrodialysis

20.18 Conclusions

References

21 Adsorption-membrane filtration hybrid process in wastewater treatment

Kulbhushan Samal, Chandan Das, Kaustubha Mohanty

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Adsorption process

21.3 Membrane process

21.4 Adsorption-membrane hybrid process

21.5 Conclusions and future scope

Nomenclature

References

22 Layer by layer (LbL) coated multilayer membranes in dye house effluent treatment

Usha K. Aravind, Subha Sasi, Mary Lidiya Mathew, Charuvila T. Aravindakumar

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Water consumption in the textile sector

22.3 Overview of textile processing and major pollutants

22.4 Natural vs synthetic dyes

22.5 Treatment methods for textile wastewater

22.6 Membrane separation processes

22.7 Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly

22.8 Materials in LbL assembly

22.9 LbL assembled MF membranes for textile dye removal

22.10 Conclusions and future prospects

References

23 Membrane Technology- A Sustainable Approach for Environmental Protection

Ranjana Das, Arijit Mondal, Chiranjib Bhattacharjee

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Brief about membrane technology

23.3 Application of membrane technology in environmental protection

23.4 Advanced membrane processes for treatment of different wastewater streams

References

24 Processing of dairy industrial effluent and kitchen wastewater by integration of microbial action with membrane processes

S. S. Chandrasekhar, Nivedita Sahu, S. Sridhar

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Membrane filtration technology

24.3 Potential of membrane filtration combined with biological process

24.4 Challenges facing MBR and MFC technologies

24.5 Types of Membrane Bioreactors

24.6 Types of MFC's

24.7 Experimental Case Study with Kitchen Wastewater

24.8 Experimental case study on dairy industrial effluent

24.9 Sampling and analytical methods

24.10 Membrane fouling and its prevention

24.11 Results & Discussion

24.12 Conclusions

References

About the Editor

Dr. Sundergopal Sridhar is a Chemical Engineer from University College of Technology, Osmania University, Hyderabad who has been working as a Scientist in the area of Membrane Separation Processes at the CSIR- IICT, Hyderabad for the past 20 years during which he has developed several technologies for chemical industries besides contributing immensely to rural welfare through water purification projects and academic development via extensive HRD and laboratory development in several schools and colleges.

Major highlights of his career include: (i) Commissioning of several membrane pilot plants based on Electrodialysis, Nanofiltration and Gas Permeation of capacities varying from 500–5000 L/h to facilitate solvent recovery, effluent treatment and gas purification in pharmaceutical, steel, textile and petrochemical industries, and (ii) Design and installation of 15 model defluoridation plants of 600- 4000 L/h capacity and 25 highly compact low cost systems of 100-200 L/h capacity for purification of ground water for more than 2 Million population affected by fluorosis, gastroenteritis, jaundice, typhoid and other water borne diseases in villages of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, which is widely appreciated by the press, masses and His Excellency, The governor of TS and AP, besides union ministers of science & technology. A free water camp based on compact system design was established by Dr. Sridhar on Uppal Road in Hyderabad city and has been providing healthy water to urban population including pedestrians, drivers of buses, autos, cars and two wheelers, totally free of cost, since April 2016. Similar camps at All India Industrial Exhibition in Jan-Feb, 2017 & 2018 and CSIR Science Exhibition have provided free drinking water to a population of 3 Lakh people including school children.

Dr. Sridhar has published 126 research papers in reputed international journals such as Journal of Membrane Science, and Macromolecules, which are widely cited by peers more than 5600 times in high impact journals with h-index of 37. He has 10 foreign patents to his credit besides 14 Book Chapters and 150 papers in proceedings of various symposia/conferences. Dr. Sridhar has trained 300 B.Tech./M.Tech & M.Sc. students from different universities and institutes for project work apart from guiding 6 scholars for PhD. Dr. Sridhar’s students have been awarded 20 prizes for meritorious work and best oral paper/poster presentation made under his guidance in various conferences / symposia.

Dr. Sridhar is a recipient of 30 Prestigious Science Awards including 15 National Awards and 3 State Awards such as IIChE Amar Dye-Chem Award 2003, CSIR Young Scientist Award 2007, Engineer of The Year Award from A.P. State Govt. in 2009, Scopus Young Scientist Award 2011, NASI- Reliance Industries Platinum Jubilee Award 2013, VNMM award from IIT-Roorkee 2015, CIPET national awards for 2016 and 2017 and Nina Saxena Excellence in Technology Award from IIT-Kharagpur in 2017.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013060
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General