Mental health and illness is one of the most fascinating and contested interdisciplinary areas of research, theory, and study. Scholars from fields such as psychology, sociology, social work, and law have, in particular, contributed to a rich literature which revolves around a number of key controversies and ongoing debates. Some of these include: What is mental health and illness? Indeed, are mental-health problems illnesses at all? How do we measure mental health? What factors influence the diversity of meaning attached to mental-health problems? And what are their causes? Do they originate in our biological, genetic, or neurochemical make-up? Or in our personality or family upbringing? What role does social structure and culture play? Does treatment provide primarily care, or social control? Is the use of coercion justified? Are those with severe mental illnesses able to enjoy normal lives, and what role should they play in making life-decisions for themselves? What are the diverse systems of care that have emerged to care for those with mental-health problems? How does social inequality influence mental-health outcomes? And how do diverse social-cultural groups experience and treat mental-health problems? How does mental health influence physical health and vice versa?
As research on and around these kinds of question continues to flourish as never before, this new title in the Routledge series, Major Themes in Health and Social Welfare, meets the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of a rapidly growing and ever more complex corpus of literature, and to provide a map of the area as it has emerged and developed. It is a four-volume collection of foundational and the best cutting-edge scholarship in the field.
The first volume in the collection (‘The Meaning and Experience of Mental Illness’) brings together the best work on the meaning of mental health and mental illness. Defining mental illness has often been especially controversial, with some serious thinkers even questioning its reality beyond a social construction to label the undesirable or different. Volume I includes material on the major theories about the aetiology of mental-health disorders and describes how individuals experience mental health and illness, with close attention to cross-cultural variation. In addition, the work gathered in Volume I reviews major systems for measuring and classifying mental illnesses, and includes recent research on the prevalence of mental illness across the world.
Volume II (‘Social Reaction to Mental Health Problems’) focuses on the social reaction to mental illness and includes classic and contemporary work on the various ways in which groups and societies have treated those with mental-health problems. Central to this social response has been the reality of stigmatization. Because of the shame of mental illness, systems of care very often serve social-control functions and those with mental illnesses are subject to coercion, commitment, and criminalization. Volume II also brings together the best work from the counter movements for ‘normalization, empowerment, and recovery’, as well as research that explores mental illness as a type of disability.
Volume III (‘Changing Institutional Contexts for Care’) assembles the most important research literature on the diverse systems of care which have emerged to deal with individuals with mental-health problems. Communal systems, institutionalized care, community-based care, and managed care all serve both therapeutic as well as social-control functions, and this part of the collection takes both a historical as well as a cross-cultural perspective, and links systems of care to the issues of therapeutic care and social control explored in Volume II.
Volume IV (‘Mental Health and the Structure of Society) draws on significant thinking about the relationship between mental health and other major social institutions. It includes a consideration of socio-demographic and cross-cultural diversity in the experience of mental health and illness. The materials gathered here also address the important role of stress and social support in understanding mental health and illness. Volume IV also focuses on the relationship between physical and mental health, an increasingly important strand of research, and places mental-health policy in its historic context. The key research examining forces—such as the consumer movement and other advocacy groups—promoting change in existing policies is also included here.
With a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context, Mental Health is an essential collection destined to be valued by scholars and students as a vital one-stop research resource.
Table of Contents
Volume I: The Meaning and Experience of Mental Illness
Part 1: Definitions of Mental Health and Illness
1. Allan V. Horwitz, ‘The Meaning of Mental Illness’, The Social Control of Mental Illness (Academic Press, 1982), pp. 13–30.
2. William W. Eaton, Christian Ritter, and Diane Brown, ‘Psychiatric Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sociology: Influences on the Recognition of Bizarre Behaviors as Social Problems’, Research in Community Mental Health, 1990, 6: 41–68.
3. Jerome Wakefield, ‘The Concept of Mental Disorder: On the Boundary Between Biological Facts and Social Values’, American Psychologist, 1992, 47: 373–88.
4. Carol D. Ryff, ‘Happiness is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1989, 57: 1069–81.
Part 2: Aetiologies of Mental Health Problems
5. Thomas Szasz, ‘Sociology of the Therapeutic Situation’, The Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct (Harper & Row, 1964), pp. 52–72.
6. R. Walter Heinrichs, ‘Schizophrenia and the Brain: Conditions for a Neuropsychology of Madness’, American Psychologist, 1993, 48: 221–33.
7. Leon Eisenberg, ‘The Social Construction of the Human Brain’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 1995, 152: 1563–75.
8. Osborne Wiggins and Michael A. Schwartz, ‘The Limits of Psychiatric Knowledge and the Problem of Classification’, in John A. Sadler, Osborne P. Wiggins, and Michael A. Schwartz (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Psychiatric Diagnostic Classification (John Hopkins University Press, 1994), pp. 89–103.
Part 3: Experiences of Mental Health and Illness
9. Judi Chamberlin, ‘A Patient’s View of the Mental Health System’, On Our Own: Patient-Controlled Alternatives to the Mental Health System (Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1978), pp. 3–21.
10. Sue E. Estroff, ‘Self, Identity, and Subjective Experiences of Schizophrenia: In Search of the Subject’, Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1989, 15(2): 189–96.
11. Esso Leete, ‘The Interpersonal Environment: A Consumer’s Personal Recollection’, in Agnes B. Hatfield and Harriet P. Lefley (eds.), Surviving Mental Illness: Stress, Coping and Adaptation (Guilford Press, 1993), pp. 114–28.
12. Paula Caplan, ‘Whose Normality is it, Anyway?’, They Say You’re Crazy: How the World’s Most Powerful Psychiatrists Decide Who’s Normal (Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1995), pp. 33–58.
13. David Karp, ‘Illness and Identity’, Speaking of Sadness: Depression, Disconnection and the Meanings of Illness (Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 50–77.
Part 4: Measurement of Mental Health and Illness
14. Mitchell Wilson, ‘DSM-III and the Transformation of American Psychiatry: A History’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 1993, 150: 399–410.
15. John Mirowsky and Catherine Ross, ‘Psychiatric Diagnosis as Reified Measurement’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1989, 30: 11–25.
16. Stuart A. Kirk and Herb Kutchins, ‘The Transformation of Psychiatric Troubles’, The Selling of DSM: The Rhetoric of Science in Psychiatry (de Gruyter, 1992), pp. 17–45.
17. Ronald C. Kessler, ‘The Categorical versus Dimensional Assessment Controversy in the Sociology of Mental Illness’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2002, 43(2), 171–88.
Part 5: Empirical Studies of Mental Health and Illness
18. Robert Michels and Peter Marzuk, ‘Progress in Psychiatry: A Review Article’, The New England Journal of Medicine, 1993, 329: 552–60.
19. Stephen Stansfeld, Amanda Feeney, Jenny Head, Robert Canner, Fiona North, and Michael Marmot, ‘Sickness Absence for Psychiatric Illness: The Whitehall II Study’, Social Science & Medicine, 1995, 40(2): 189–97.
20. Arthur Kleinman and Alex Cohen, ‘Psychiatry’s Global Challenge’, Scientific American, Mar. 1997, 86–9.
21. Ronald C. Kessler et al., ‘Prevalence and Treatment of Mental Disorders, 1990 to 2003’, The New England Journal of Medicine, June 2005, 352, 24: 2515–23.
Volume II: Social Reaction to Mental Health Problems
Part 1: Stigma and Labelling
22. David Rosenhan, ‘On Being Sane in Insane Places’, Science, 1973, 179: 250–8.
23. Peggy A. Thoits, ‘Self-Labeling Processes in Mental Illness: The Role of Emotional Deviance’, American Journal of Sociology, 1985, 91(2): 221–49.
24. Richard Warner, Dawn Taylor, Moira Powers, and Joell Hyman, ‘Acceptance of the Mental Illness Label by Psychotic Patients’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1989, 59(3): 398–409.
25. Sarah Rosenfield, ‘Labeling Mental Illness: The Effects of Received Services and Perceived Stigma on Life Satisfaction’, American Sociological Review, 1997, 62: 660–72.
26. Bruce G. Link, Francis T. Cullen, James Frank, and John F. Wozniak, ‘The Social Rejection of Former Mental Patients: Understanding Why Labels Matter’, American Journal of Sociology, 1987, 92: 1461–500.
Part 2: Therapeutic Care Versus Social Control
27. Arnold S. Linsky, ‘Community Homogeneity and Exclusion of the Mentally Ill: Rejection Versus Consensus about Deviance’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1970, 11: 304–11.
28. Allan Horwitz, 1982. ‘The Nature of Therapeutic Social Control’, The Social Control of Mental Illness (Academic Press, 1982), pp. 121–42.
29. Thomas Scheff, ‘Social Control as a System’, Being Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory, 2nd edn. (Aldine Publishing Co., 1984), pp. 17–35.
30. Andrew Scull, ‘Humanitarianism or Control? Some Observations on the Historiography of Anglo-American Psychiatry’, Social Order/Mental Disorder: Anglo-American Psychiatry in Historical Perspective (University of California Press, 1989), pp. 31–53.
Part 3: Coercion, Commitment, and Criminalization
31. Alan Stone, ‘Overview: Right to Treatment: Comments on the Law and its Impact’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 1975, 132(11): 1125–34.
32. Leonard S. Rubenstein, ‘Treatment of the Mentally Ill: Legal Advocacy Enters the Second Generation’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 1986, 143(10): 1264–9.
33. Edward P. Mulvey, Jeffrey L. Geller, and Loren H. Roth, ‘The Promise and Peril of Involuntary Outpatient Commitment’, American Psychologist, 1987, 42(6): 571–84.
34. John Monahan, ‘A Terror to Their Neighbors: Beliefs About Mental Disorder and Violence in Historical and Cultural Perspective’, Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 1992, 20: 191–5.
35. Virginia Aldige Hiday, ‘The Social Context of Mental Illness and Violence’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1995, 36: 122–37.
Part 4: Normalization, Empowerment, and Recovery
36. Robert Paulson, ‘Advocacy and Empowerment: Mental Health Care in the Community’, Community Mental Health Journal, 1992, 28: 70–1.
37. Susan Chandler, ‘Changing Models of Advocacy’, Competing realities: The Contested Terrain of Mental Health Advocacy (Praeger, 1990), pp. 69–81.
38. Jay Neugeboren, ‘Pathways to Recovery’, Transforming Madness: New Lives for People Living with Mental Illness (University of California Press, 1999), pp. 285–326.
39. Nora Jacobson and Dianne Greenley, ‘What is Recovery? A Conceptual Model and Explication’, Psychiatric Services, 2001, 52(4): 482–5.
Part 5: Mental Illness as Disability
40. Teresa L. Scheid, ‘Stigma as a Barrier to Employment: Mental Disability and the Americans with Disabilities Act’, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 2005, 28: 670–90.
41. Joan Susman, ‘Disability, Stigma and Deviance’, Social Science and Medicine, 1994, 38: 15–22.
42. David Mechanic, ‘Cultural and Organizational Aspects of Application of the Americans with Disabilities Act to Persons with Psychiatric Disabilities’, The Miibank Quarterly, 1998, 76: 5–23.
43. Paul S. Appelbaum, ‘Discrimination in Psychiatric Disability Coverage and the Americans with Disabilities Act’, Psychiatric Services, 1998, 49: 875–81.
Volume III: Changing Institutional Contexts for Care
Part 1: Communal Systems
44. Nancy Scheper-Hughes and Anne M. Lovell, ‘Breaking the Circuit of Social Control: Lessons in Public Psychiatry From Italy and Franco Basaglia’, Social Science & Medicine, 1986, 23(2): 159–78.
45. Denise Jodelet, ‘Framework and History of a Family Colony’, Madness and Social Representations: Living with the Mad in One French Community (University of California Press, 1991), pp. 25–47.
46. Gerald N. Grob, ‘Caring for the Insane in Colonial America’, The Mad Among Us: A History of Care of America’s Mentally Ill (Macmillan, 1994), pp. 5–21.
47. Shulamit Ramon, ‘Trieste, Italy: Reform and the Work Cooperatives: A Case Study of Immersion in the Community’, in R. Schulz and J. R. Greenley (eds.), Innovating in Community Mental Health: International Perspectives (Praeger Publishers, 1995), pp. 43–60.
Part 2: Institutionalized Care
48. Amitai Etzioni, ‘Interpersonal and Structural Factors in the Study of Mental Hospitals’, Psychiatry, 1960, 23: 13–22.
49. Erving Goffman, ‘The Medical Model and Mental Hospitalization’, Asylums (Anchor Books, 1961), pp. 323–86.
50. George Dowdall, ‘Mental Hospitals and Deinstitutionalization’, in Carol S. Aneshensel and Jo C. Phelen (eds.), Handbook of the Sociology of Mental Health (Kluwer Academic, 1999), pp. 519–37.
51. Alan Quirk and Paul Lelliott, ‘What Do We Know About Life on Acute Psychiatric Wards in the UK? A Review of the Research Evidence’, Social Science & Medicine, 2001, 53: 1565–74.
Part 3: Deinstitutionalization
52. Stuart A. Kirk and Mark E. Therrien, ‘Community Mental Health Myths and the Fate of Former Hospitalized Patients’, Psychiatry, 1975, 38: 209–17.
53. William Gronfein, ‘Psychotropic Drugs and the Origins of Deinstitutionalization’, Social Problems, 1985, 32: 437–54.
54. David Mechanic and David A. Rochefort, ‘Deinstitutionalization: An Appraisal of Reform’, Annual Review of Sociology, 1990, 16: 301–27.
55. Eric Wright, William Gronfein, and Timothy Owens, ‘Deinstitutionalization, Social Rejection, and the Self Esteem of the Former Mental Patients’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2000, 41: 68–90.
Part 4: Community-Based Care
56. John H. Beard, ‘The Rehabilitation Services of Fountain House’, in Leonard I. Stein and Mary Ann Test (eds.), Alternatives to Mental Hospital Treatment (Plenum Press, 1975), pp. 201–23.
57. David A. Snow, Susan G. Baker, Leon Anderson, and Michael Martin, ‘The Myth of Pervasive Mental Illness Among the Homeless’, Social Problems, 1986, 33(5): 407–23.
58. Deborah A. Salem, Edward Seidman, and Julian Rappaport, ‘Community Treatment of the Mentally Ill: The Promise of Mutual Help Organizations’, Social Work, 1988, 33(5): 403–8.
59. Paul J. Carling, ‘Housing and Supports for Persons with Mental Illness: Emerging Approaches to Research and Practice’, Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 1993, 44(5): 439–49.
Part 5: Managed Care and Privatization
60. Phil Brown and Elizabeth Cooksey, ‘Mental Health Monopoly: Corporate Trends in Mental Health Services’, Social Science and Medicine, 1989, 28: 1129–38.
61. Dana Baldwin, ‘Meeting Production: The Economics of Contracting Mental Illness’, Social Science and Medicine, 1990, 30: 961–8.
62. Philip J. Boyle and Daniel Callahan, ‘Managed Care in Mental Health: The Ethical Issues’, Health Affairs, 1995, 14(3): 7–22.
63. James E. Sabin and Norman Daniels, ‘Strengthening the Consumer Voice in Managed Care: I. Can the Private Sector Meet the Public Sector Standard?’, Psychiatric Services, 2001, 52(4): 461–2, 464.
Volume IV: Mental Health and the Structure of Society
Part 1: Socio-Demographic Predictors of Mental Health and Illness
64. Bruce P. Dohrenwend, ‘Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Psychiatric Disorders: Are the Issues Still Compelling?’, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1990, 25: 41–7.
65. Sharon Schwartz, ‘Women and Depression: A Durkheimian Perspective’, Social Science & Medicine, 1991, 32(2): 127–40.
66. Kristi Williams, ‘Has the Future of Marriage Arrived? A Contemporary Examination of Gender, Marriage, and Psychological Well-Being’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2003, 44: 470–87.
67. Sue E. Levkoff, Ian W. Macarthur, and Julia Bucknall, ‘Elderly Mental Health in the Developing World’, Social Science and Medicine, 1995, 983–1003.
Part 2: Cultural Diversity
68. Harriet P. Lefley, ‘Culture and Chronic Mental Illness’, Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 1990, 41(3): 277–86.
69. Victor R. Adebimpe, ‘Race, Racism, and Epidemiological Surveys’, Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 1994, 45(1): 27–31.
70. Zheng Wu, Samuel Noh, Violet Kaspar, and Christoph M. Schimmele, ‘Race, Ethnicity, and Depression in Canadian Society’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2003, 44: 426–41.
71. Theresa D. O’Nell and Christina M. Mitchell, ‘Alcohol Use Among American Indian Adolescents: The Role of Culture in Pathological Drinking’, Social Science & Medicine, 1996, 42(4): 565–78.
72. Stanley Sue and June Y. Chu, ‘The Mental Health of Ethnic Minority Groups: Challenges Posed by the Supplement to the Surgeon General’s Report on Mental Health’, Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, 2003, 27: 447–65.
Part 3: Stress and Social Support
73. Peggy A. Thoits, ‘Conceptual, Methodological, and Theoretical Problems in Studying Social Support as a Buffer Against Life Stress’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1982, 23: 145–59.
74. Carol Aneshensel, ‘Social Stress: Theory and Research’, Annual Review of Sociology, 1992, 18: 15–38.
75. R. Jay Turner and William Avison, ‘Status Variations in Stress Exposure: Implications for the Interpretation of Research on Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Gender’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2003, 44: 488–505.
76. Joyce Serido, David M. Almeida, and Elaine Wethington, ‘Chronic Stressors and Daily Hassles: Unique and Interactive Relationships with Psychological Distress’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2004, 45: 17–33.
77. Susan Roxburgh, ‘There Just Aren’t Enough Hours in the Day: The Mental Health Consequences of Time Pressure’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2004, 45: 115–31.
Part 4: Mental Health and Physical Health
78. Carol S. Aneshensel, Ralph R. Frerichs, and George J. Huba, ‘Depression and Physical Illness: A Multiwave, Nonrecursive Causal Model’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1984, 25: 350–71.
79. Fred C. Osher and Lial L. Kofoed, ‘Treatment of Patients with Psychiatric and Psychoactive Substance Abuse Disorders’, Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 1989, 40(10): 1025–30.
80. Kristine Siefert, Colleen M. Heflin, Mary E. Corcoran, and David R. Williams, ‘Food Insufficiency and Physical and Mental Health in a Longitudinal Survey of Welfare Recipients’, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 2004, 45: 171–86.
81. Melvyn C. Freeman, Vikram Patel, Pamela Y. Collins, and Jose M. Bertolote, ‘Integrating Mental Health in Global Initiatives for HIV/AIDS’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 2005, 187: 1–3.
82. Philip S. Wang, Olga Demler, Mark Olfson, Harold A. Pincus, Kenneth B. Wells, and Ronald C. Kessler, ‘Changing Profiles of Service Sectors Used for Mental Health Care in the United States’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 2006, 163(7): 1187–98.
Part 5: Mental Health Policy
83. James M. Mandiberg, ‘The Japanese Mental Health System and Law: Social and Structural Impediments to Reform’, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 1996, 19(3/4): 413–35.
84. David Mechanic, ‘Establishing Mental Health Priorities’, Milbank Quarterly, 1994, 72: 501–14.
85. Julia Jones, ‘Mental Health Care Reforms in Britain and Italy since 1950: A Cross-National Comparative Study’, Health & Place, 2000, 6: 171–87.
86. Athena Helen McLean, ‘From Ex-Patient Alternatives to Consumer Options: Consequences of Consumerism for Psychiatric Consumers and the Ex-Patient Movement’, International Journal of Health Services, 2000, 30: 821–47.
87. Nancy Wolff, ‘Risk, Response and Mental Health Policy: Learning from the Experience of the United Kingdom’, Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law, 2002, 27(5): 801–32.