Methodological and Biostatistical Foundations of Clinical Neuropsychology and Medical and Health Disciplines
The goal of the second edition is to introduce the advance undergraduate or graduate student and more seasoned research scientists in any of the allied health sciences to a wide array of methodological and biostatistical issues, as they occur in the context of both published and ongoing research. Some sixty-four articles published between 1992 and 2002 have been selected from the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, The Clinical Neuropsychologist, and Child Neuropsychology and reproduced in this volume. While building upon a working knowledge and understanding of the basic univariate data analytic techniques and the research designs to which they apply, the approach to the more complex multivariate techniques is presented primarily at a conceptual and essentially non-mathematical level.
While the issue of the complexity of some of the more recent and standard approaches to data analytic strategies, and their important role to specific research designs is important to convey, there remains an even more fundamental issue of whether the results of correctly applied data analytic strategies make any practical or clinical sense, above and beyond their having reached levels of "statistical significance". These critical issues are addressed throughout various commentaries that the editors make at appropriate points in the text.
The volume will appeal to advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as clinical neuropsychologists and research scientists in any of the allied health disciplines.
Table of Contents
Selected Contents. I. Introduction and Overview. II. Distinguishing between Statistics and Biostatistics. III. Distinguishing between Parametric and Nonparametric Approaches to Data Analysis. IV. Scales of Measurement. V. Reliability. VI. Editors' Commentaries Introducing Selected Articles on Reliability Assessment Published in JCEN, TCN, and CN between 1992 and 2003. D.V. Cicchetti, F. Volkmar, S.S. Sparrow, D. Cohen, J. Fermanian, B.P. Rourke (1992), Assessing the Reliability of Clinical Scales When the Data Have Both Nominal and Ordinal Features: Proposed Guidelines for Neuropsychological Assessments. G.G. Brown, J.E. Del Dotto, J.L. Fisk, H.G. Taylor, N. Breslau (1993), Analyzing Clinical Ratings of Performance on Pediatric Neuropsychological Tests. S.C. Bowden, G. Whelan, C.M. Long, C.C. Clifford (1995), Temporal Stability of the WAIS-R and WMS-R in a Heterogeneous Sample of Alcohol Dependent Clients. M.D. Franzen, M.W. Haut, E. Rankin, R. Keefover (1995), Empirical Comparison of Alternate Forms of the Boston Naming Test. M.D. Franzen, D. Paul, G.L. Iverson, (1996), Reliability of Alternate Forms of the Trail Making Test. S.L. Carter, D. Shore, M.C.S. Harnadek, C.S. Kubu (1998), Normative Data and Interrater Reliability of the Design Fluency Test. D.V. Cichetti, R. Rosenbeck, D. Showalter, D. Charney, J. Cramer (1999), Interrater Reliability Levels of Multiple Clinical Examiners in the Evaluation of a Schizophrenic Patient: Quality of Life, Level of Functioning and Neuropsychological Symptomatology. Y.I. Demsky, A.H. Sellers (1995), Improving Examiner Reliability on the Visual Memory Span Subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised. G.H. Maassen (2000), Principles of Defining Reliable Change Indices. A.J. McSweeny, R.I. Naugle, G.J. Chelune, H. Lüders, (1993), "T Scores for Change": An Illustration of a Regression Approach to Depicting Change in Clinical Neuropsychology. B.J. Winegarden, B.L. Yates, J.A. Moses Jr., A.L. Benton, W.O. Faustman (1998), Development of an Optimally Reliable Short Form for Judgment of Line Orientation. VII. Validity. VIII. Editors' Commentaries Preceding Articles on Validity Assessment Published in JCEN, TCN and CN between 1992 and 2003. D.V. Cicchetti, D. Showalter, B.P. Rourke, D.R. Fuerst (1992), A Computer Program for Analyzing Ordinal Trends with Dichotomous Outcomes: Application to Neuropsychological Research. A.I. Drake, H.J. Hannay (1992), Continuous Recognition Memory Tests: Are the Assumptions of the Theory of Signal Detection Met? J.R. Crawford, D.C. Howell (1998), Regression Equations in Clinical Neuropsychology: An Evaluation of Statistical Methods for Comparing Predicted and Obtained Scores. J.R. Crawford, D.C. Howell, P.H. Garthwaite (2002), Payne and Jones Revisited: Estimating the Abnormality of Test Score Differences Using and Modified Paired Samples t Test. J. Donders, S. Warschausky, (1996), Validity of a Short Form of the WISC-III in Children with Traumatic Head Injury. A.M. Paolo, J.J. Ryan, A.I. Tröster, C.D. Hilmer (1996), Demographically Based Regression Equations to Estimate WAIS-R Subtest Scaled Scores. E. Strauss, D. Loring, G. Chelune, M. Hunter, B. Hermann, K. Perrine, M. Westerveld, M. Trenerry, W. Barr (1995), Predicting Cognitive Impairment in Epilepsy: Findings from the Bozeman Epilepsy Consortium. Y. Suchy, A. Blint, D.C. Osmon (1977), Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale: Criterion and Predictive Validity in an Inpatient Rehabilitation Unit Population. H. Tuokko, T.S. Woodward (1996), Development and Validation of a Demographic Correction System for Neuropsychological Measures Used in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. L.A. Bieliauskas, P.S. Fastenau, M.A. Lacy, B.L. Roper (1997), Use of the Odds Ratio to Translate Neuropsychological Test Scores into Real-World Outcomes: From Statistical Significance to Clinical Significance. D.V. Cicchetti, F. Volkmar, A. Klin, D. Showalter (1995), Diagnosing Autism Using ICD-10 Criteria: A Comparison of Neural Networks and Standard Multivariate Procedures. K.L. Fuchs, H.J. Hannay, W.M. Huckeba, K.A. Espy (1999), Construct Validity of the Continuous Recognition Memory Test. D.B. Burton, J. Donders, W. Mittenberg (1996), A Structural Equation Analysis of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning in the Standardization Sample. D.J. Francis, J.M. Fletcher, B.P. Rourke, M.J. York (1992), A Five-factor Model for Motor, Psychomotor, and Visual-spatial Tests Used in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Children. J.M. Cosica, M.D. Riss, P.A. Succop, K.N. Dietrich (2003), Cognitive Development of Lead Exposed Children From Ages 6 to 15 Years: An Application of Growth Curve Analysis. K. Butler, B.P. Rourke, D.R. Fuerst, J.L. Fisk (1997), A Typology of Psychosocial Functioning in Pediatric Closed-head Injury. N.J. Fisher, B.P. Rourke, L. Bieliauskas, B. Giordani. S. Berent. N.L. Foster (1996), Neuropsychological Subgroups of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease. N.J. Fisher, B.P. Rourke, L.A. Bieliauskas (1999), Neuropsychological Subgroups of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: An Examination of the First 10 Years of CERAD Data. D.R. Fuerst, B.P. Rourke (1995), Psychosocial Functioning of Children with Learning Disabilities at Three Age Levels. M.B. Ralston, D.R. Fuerst, B.P. Rourke (2003), Comparison of the Psychosocial Typology of Children with Below Average IQ to That of Children with Learning Disabilities. M.R. Basso, R.A. Bornstein, B.L. Roper, V.L. McCoy (2000), Limited Accuracy of Premorbid Intelligence Estimators: A Demonstration of Regression to the Mean. J.R. Crawford, K.M. Allan (1997), Estimating Premorbid WAIS-R IQ with Demographic Variables: Regression Equations Derived from a UK Sample. R.E. Graves (2000), Accuracy of Regression Equation Prediction across the Range of Estimated Premorbid IQ. B.E. Snitz, L.A. Bieliauskas, A. Crossland, M.R. Basso, B. Roper (2000), PPVT-R as an Estimate of Premorbid Intelligence in Older Adults. K.O. Yeates, H.G. Taylor (1997), Predicting Premorbid Neuropsychological Functioning following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. D.V. Cicchetti, D. Showalter, B.E. Wexler (1993), A Computer Program for Performing Meta-analyses when the Outcome Variable is Dichotomous: Relevance to Neuropsychology and Biomedical Research. J.J. Sweet, Y. Suchy, B. Leahy, C. Abramowitz, C.J. Nowinski (1999), Normative Clinical Relationship between Orientation and Memory: Age as an Important Moderator Variable. C.L. Uchiyama, L.F. D'Elia, A.M. Dellinger, O.A. Selnes, J.T. Becker, J.E. Wesch, B.B. Chen, P. Satz, W. Van Gorp, E.N. Miller (1994), Longitudinal Comparison of Alternate Versions of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test: Issues of Form Comparability and Moderating Demographic Variables. D.D. Fox, P.R. Lees-Haley, K. Earnest, S. Dolezal-Wood (1995), Post-concussive Symptoms: Base Rates and Etiology in Psychiatric Patients. R.W. Elwood (1993), Clinical Discriminations and Neuropsychological Tests: An Appeal to Bayes' Theorem. M.R. Basso, R.A. Bornstein, J.M. Lang, (1999). Practice Effects on Commonly Used Measures of Executive Function Across Twelve Months. E.F. Bruggemans, F.J.R. Van de Vijver Hair, H.A. Huysmans (1997), Assessment of Cognitive Deterioration in Individual Patients Following Cardiac Surgery: Correcting for Measurement Error and Practice Effects. L.J. Rapport, D.B. Brines, B.N. Axelrod, M.E. Theisen (1997), Full Scale IQ as Mediator of Practice Effects: The Rich Get Richer. D.V. Cicchetti (1994a), Multiple Comparison Methods: Establishing Guidelines for Their Valid Application in Neuropsychological Research. N.C. Berman, S.W. Greenhouse (1992), Adjusting for Demographic Covariates by the Analysis of Covariance. K.M. Adams, G.G. Brown, I. Grant (1992), Covariance is Not the Culprit: Adams, Brown and Grant Reply. D.V. Cicchetti, L.D. Nelson (1994), Re-examining Threats to the Reliability and Validity of Putative Brain-behavior Relationships: New Guidelines for Assessing the Effects of Patients Lost to Follow-up. L.C. Mayes, D.V. Cicchetti (1995), Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Neurobehavioral Development: How Subjects Lost to Follow-up Bias Study Results. J.M. Byrne, C.A. Dywan, J.F. Connolly (1995), Assessment of Children's Receptive Vocabulary Using Event-related Brain Potentials: Development of a Clinically Valid Test. D. Schretlen, J.H. Bobholz, J. Brandt (1996), Development and Psychometric Properties of the Brief Test of Attention. D. Schretlen, J. Brandt, J.H. Bobholz (1996), Validation of the Brief Test of Attention in Patients with Huntington's Disease and Amnesia. D.V. Cicchetti (1998), Role of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) in the Design of Neuropsychologic Research. D.V. Cicchetti (1999), Sample Size Requirements for Increasing the Precision of Reliability Estimates: Problems and Proposed Solutions. D.V. Cicchetti (2001), The Precision of Reliability and Validity Estimates Re-visited: Distinguishing between Clinical and Statistical Significance of Sample Size Requirements. P. Brouwers, H. Van der Vlugt, H. Moss, P. Wolters P. Pizzo (1995), White Matter Changes on CT Brain Scan are Associated with Neurobehavioral Dysfunction in Children with Symptomatic HIV Disease. L.A. Buono, M.K. Morris, R.D. Morris, N. Krawiecki, F.H. Norris, M.A. Foster, D.R. Copeland (1998), Evidence for the Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities in Children with Brain Tumors. A.J. Don, E.G. Schellenberg, B.P. Rourke (1999), Music and Language Skills of Children with Williams Syndrome. N.J. Fisher, J.W. DeLuca (1997), Verbal Learning Strategies of Adolescents and Adults With the Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities. J.M. Fletcher, T.P. Bohan, M. Brant, S.R> Beaver, K. Thorstad, B.L. Brookshire, D.J. Francis, K.C. Davison, N.M. Thompson (1993), Relationships of Cognitive Skills and Cerebral White Matter in Hydrocephalic Children. S.L. Hepworth, J.F. Rovet (2000), Visual Integration Difficulties in a 9 Year Old Girl with Turner Syndrome: Parallel Verbal Disabilities? T.V. Ryan, W.D. Crews Jr., L. Crowen, A.M. Goering, J.T. Barth (1998), A Case of Triple X Syndrome Manifesting with the Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Difficulties. A. Swillen, L. Vandeputte, J. Cracco, B. Maes, P. Ghesquière, K. Devriendt, J.-P. Fryns (1999), Neuropsychological, Learning, and Psychosocial Profile of Primary School Aged Children with the Velo-cardio-facial Syndrome (22q11 deletion): Evidence for a Nonverbal Learning Disability? L.J. Rapport, S.R. Millis, P.J. Bonello (1998), Validation of the Warrington Theory of Visual Processing and the Visual Object and Space Perception Battery. General Conclusions and Future Directions.