1st Edition

Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings

By Arjun Dey, Anoop Kumar Mukhopadhyay Copyright 2015
    288 Pages
    by CRC Press

    288 Pages 91 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    There has been enormous growth in the use of medical implants. However, in the case of hip replacement, loosening of metallic prosthesis fixed with polymethylmethylacrylate bone cement has resulted in painstaking revision surgery, which is a major problem for the patient, surgeon, and biomedical technology itself. In fact, global recognition of this problem led to the development of cementless fixation through the novel introduction of a bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating on biomedical-grade metallic implants. Since then, a wide variety of coating methods have evolved to make the HAp coatings on metallic implants more reliable.

    Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings discusses plasma spraying and other related HAp coating techniques, focusing on the pros and cons of macroplasma sprayed (MAPS)- and microplasma sprayed (MIPS)-HAp coatings. The book begins by explaining what a biomaterial really is, what the frequently used term biocompatibility stands for, and why it is so important for biomaterials to be biocompatible. It then:

    • Examines the structural, chemical, macromechanical, micro/nanomechanical, and tribological properties and residual stress of HAp coatings
    • Evaluates the efficacies under simulated body fluid immersion for MAPS- and MIPS-HAp coatings developed on biomedical implant-grade SS316L substrates
    • Offers a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art in vivo studies of MIPS-HAp coatings, presenting the results of pioneering research related to bone defect fixation

    Shedding light on the future scope and possibilities of MIPS-HAp coatings, Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings provides a valuable reference for students, researchers, and practitioners of biomedical engineering and materials science.

    Introduction of Biomaterials
    Types of Biomaterials
    Categories of Bioceramics
    What Is Hydroxyapatite?
    What Is Hydroxyapatite Coating?
    Introduction of Bone: A Natural Biomaterial
    Introduction of Teeth: A Natural Biomaterial
    Surface Engineering of Bioinert Materials
    Challenges to Develop Surface-Engineered Implants
    Plasma Spraying and Other Related Coating Techniques
    Plasma Spray Process
    How Will Coating Form?
    Plasma Sprayed HAp Coatings
    Microplasma Spraying
    Microplasma Spraying and Its Application
    Microplasma Spraying: A Unique Manufacturing Technique
    Other Coating Processes
    Microplasma vs. Macroplasma Spraying
    Hydroxyapatite Coating and Its Application
    Background of the Problem and Basic Issues
    Applications of HAp Coating
    HAp Coating Developed by Different Methods
    Microplasma and Macroplasma Sprayed HAp Coatings: Pros and Cons
    Influence of Plasma Spraying Parameters on HAp Coating
    Nanostructured HAp Coating
    HAp Composite Coating
    Plasma-Sprayed HAp Coating: Current Research Scenario
    Structural and Chemical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coating
    Stoichiometry of HAp
    Phase Analysis of MIPS-HAp Coatings
    Spectroscopic Investigation of MIPS-HAp Coatings
    Microstructure of MIPS-HAp Coating
    Porosity Dependencies of Young’s Modulus and Hardness
    Qualitative Model for Explanation of Anisotropy
    Origin of Modeling on Pore Shape
    In Vitro Studies of Hydroxyapatite Coatings
    Literature Status
    Synthesis of SBF in the Laboratory
    SBF Immersion of MAPS-HAp Coatings on SS316L
    SBF Immersion of MIPS-HAp Coatings on SS316L
    Macromechanical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coating
    What Governs HAp Coating’s Performance?
    Interface Issues
    Bonding Strength and Methods of Measurements
    What Are General Guidelines to Improve Bonding Strength?
    Other Important Parameters
    Influence of Adhesive
    Influence of Microstructure
    Influence of Vacuum Heat Treatment
    Role of Interfacial Stress
    Role of Substrate Holding Arrangements
    Failure Mode and Related Issues
    Influence of Humidity
    Influence of the Dissolution Behavior
    Bonding Strength Measurements by Technologies Other Than ASTM
    HAp Coatings Developed by Other Coating Processes
    Bonding Strength of MIPS-HAp Coatings
    MAPS-HAp vs. MIPS-HAp Coatings
    Effect of Residual Stress
    Shear Strength and Pushout Strength
    Three-Point Bending Test
    Fatigue Behavior
    Micro/Nanomechanical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coating
    Basic Theory of Nanoindentation
    Young’s Modulus
    Effect of SBF Immersion
    Reliability Issues in Nanoindentation Data
    Fracture Toughness of MIPS-HAp Coatings
    Tribological Properties of Hydroxyapatite Coatings
    What Does the Literature Say?
    Nanoscratch Testing of MIPS-HAp Coatings at Lower Load
    Nanoscratch Testing of MIPS-HAp Coating at Higher Load
    Microscratch Testing of MIPS-HAp Coatings
    Microscratch Testing of MIPS-HAp Coatings before and after the SBF Immersion
    Residual Stress of Hydroxyapatite Coating
    Origin of Residual Stress
    Identification of Residual Stress and Importance
    Factors Affecting Residual Stress
    Common Methodologies to Evaluate Residual Stress
    Relative Advantages and Disadvantages
    Role of Higher Plasmatron Power and Secondary Gas
    Role of the Substrate Temperature
    Nature of the Residual Stress State
    Role of Other Basic Process Parameters
    Residual Stress of Thermal Sprayed and Sol-Gel-Derived HAp Coatings
    Residual Stress of MIPS-HAp Coatings
    In Vivo Studies of Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coating
    Rabbit Model
    Goat Model
    Dog Model
    Future Scope and Possibilities
    MIPS-HAp Coating on Complex and Contoured Implants
    MIPS Coating of Other Calcium Phosphates (TCP, BCP, etc.)
    MIPS-HAp Coatings on C/C Composites
    Second Phase Incorporation in HAp Coatings
    Nanostructured Plasma Sprayed HAp Coating


    Arjun Dey is a scientist in the Thermal Systems Group at the Indian Space Research Organisation Satellite Centre, Bangalore. Dr. Dey was previously at the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata, India. He holds a bachelor's degree from Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Orissa, India, and master's and doctoral degrees from the Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah (formerly Bengal Engineering and Science University). Highly decorated and widely published, Dr. Dey serves as a reviewer for many national and international journals. He recently coauthored the CRC Press book Nanoindentation of Brittle Solids with Dr. Mukhopadhyay.

    Anoop Kumar Mukhopadhyay is a chief scientist and head of the Advanced Mechanical and Materials Characterization Division of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), Kolkata, India. Prior to joining CSIR-CGCRI, Dr. Mukhopadhyay initiated in India the research work on the evaluation, analysis, and microstructure mechanical properties correlation of non-oxide ceramics for high-temperature applications. He holds a bachelor's degree from Kalyani University, India, and master's and Ph.D degrees from Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. Highly decorated and widely published, Dr. Mukhopadhyay holds seven patents, serves on the editorial board of Soft Nanoscience Letters, and recently coauthored the CRC Press book Nanoindentation of Brittle Solids with Dr. Dey.

    "This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the broad subject area of "HAp coatings developed by microplasma spraying including those of the more commercially accepted plasma spraying method" for developing HAp coated implants and prosthesis."
    —Bikramjit Basu, Professor, Materials Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Associate Faculty, Interdisciplinary Bio-Engineering Program, IISc, Bangalore, Adjunct Professor, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India

    "The organization of topics is done very methodically covering all the related and even peripheral issues. The subject is covered well with thorough details and critical views. The book would be a good reference point for researchers working on HA based coatings for orthopedic application."
    —Debrupa Lahiri, IIT Roorkee, India

    "The lucid presentation style makes it easy for the new entrant to be gradually initiated into the field without any shock or jerk. What is most striking and appealing about the book is that even after starting from basic simple premises it has very capably provided vast and in-depth discussion to an extent that would be very lucrative for advanced researchers from both Govt. and private research organizations in the emerging field of biomedical applications of ceramic coatings."
    —Dr. Satyam Priyadarshy, Founder, Reignite strategy