Microwave Propagation and Remote Sensing : Atmospheric Influences with Models and Applications book cover
1st Edition

Microwave Propagation and Remote Sensing
Atmospheric Influences with Models and Applications

ISBN 9781138076433
Published March 29, 2017 by CRC Press
257 Pages 113 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Because prevailing atmospheric/troposcopic conditions greatly influence radio wave propagation above 10 GHz, the unguided propagation of microwaves in the neutral atmosphere can directly impact many vital applications in science and engineering. These include transmission of intelligence, and radar and radiometric applications used to probe the atmosphere, among others.

Where most books address either one or the other, Microwave Propagation and Remote Sensing: Atmospheric Influences with Models and Applications melds coverage of these two subjects to help readers develop solutions to the problems they present. This reference offers a brief, elementary account of microwave propagation through the atmosphere and discusses radiometric applications in the microwave band used to characterize and model atmospheric constituents, which is also known as remote sensing.

Summarizing the latest research results in the field, as well as radiometric models and measurement methods, this book covers topics including:

  • Free space propagation
  • Reflection, interference, polarization, and other key aspects of electromagnetic wave propagation
  • Radio refraction and its effects on propagation delay
  • Methodology of estimating water vapor attenuation using radiosonde data
  • Knowledge of rain structures and use of climatological patterns to estimate/measure attenuation of rain, snow, fog, and other prevalent atmospheric particles and human-made substances
  • Dual/multifrequency methodology to deal with the influence of clouds on radiometric attenuation
  • Deployment of microwaves to ascertain various tropospheric conditions
  • Composition and characteristics of the troposphere, to help readers fully understand microwave propagation
  • Derived parameters of water, free space propagation, and conditions and variable constituents such as water vapor and vapor pressure, density, and ray bending

Table of Contents

Outlines of Radio Waves and Troposphere
General Perspective
The Effective Earth’s Radius
Radio Link
Classification of Radio Waves according to Propagation Mechanism
Radio Refractivity and Delay through the Atmosphere
Tropospheric Aerosols
Rain Characteristics

Propagation of Radio Waves: An Outline
Power Gain of Directional Aerial
Free Space Field Due to Directional Transmitting Aerial
Power at the Receiving Directional Aerial
Free Space Transmission Loss
Radio Waves in Neutral Atmosphere
When Is a Medium a Conductor or Dielectric?
Wave Polarization

Reflection and Interference of Radio Waves
Reflection of Radio Waves: An Outline
Plane Wave at Dielectric Interface
Reflection Coefficient for Flat Smooth Earth
Field Strength Due to Reflection from Flat Earth
Effect of the Earth’s Curvature: Spherical Earth
Mechanism of Ground Wave Propagation

Radio Refraction and Path Delay
Radius of Curvature of the Ray Path
Refractivity Is Complex and Frequency Dependent
Turbulence-Induced Scintillation
Microwave Propagation through Tropospheric Turbulence
Propagation over Inhomogeneous Surface
Tropospheric Ducting
Propagation Delay through the Atmosphere

Absorption of Microwaves
Absorption Coefficient
Microwave and Millimeter Wave Absorption in the Atmosphere
Centrifugal Distortion
Water Vapor Absorption at 22.235 GHz
Water Vapor Absorption at 183.311 GHz
Water Vapor and Microwave Attenuation
Choice of Frequency
Attenuation Studies in 50-70 GHz Band
Attenuation Studies at 94 GHz

Rain Attenuation and Its Application at Microwaves
Radiometric Estimation of Rain Attenuation
ITU-R Rain Attenuation Model and Its Applicability
Raindrop Size Distribution in the Tropics

Attenuation by Hydrometeors Other than Rain
Clouds: Nonprecipitable Liquid Water
Microwave Radiometric Estimation of Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid
Effect of Water Vapor and Liquid Water on Microwave Spectra
Cloud Radar

Appendix: Mean Atmospheric Temperature at Microwaves and Millimeter Waves in Clear Air Environment

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Pranab Kumar Karmakar obtained his MSc in physics in 1979 and PhD in the area of microwave propagation and remote sensing in 1990 from the University of Calcutta, India. Associated with the Department of Radiophysics and Electronics at Calcutta University since 1988, he is involved in both teaching and research work. He has more than forty-five publications in national and international journals of repute. Karmakaralso has more than thirty conference articles to his credit. He was awarded the Young Scientist Award of URSI (International Union of Radio Science) in 1990. He has been a visiting scientist at the Remote Sensing Lab, University of Kansas; Centre for Space Science, China; and Satellite Division, National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Brazil. He has also been awarded the South-South fellowship of TWAS (The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World) in 1997.

Karmakar’s current area of research includes microwave/millimeter wave propagation, microwave remote sensing, and atmospheric modeling.