1st Edition

Mineralogy for Petrologists Optics, Chemistry and Occurrences of Rock-Forming Minerals

By Michel Andre Demange Copyright 2012

    This book provides a categorized and visualized overview and presents microscopic observations, systematic mineralogy, chemistry, geology, stability, paragenesis, occurrence and use in petrology of 137 minerals. Structural formula calculations are included in the appendix. Consists of a set of book and downloadable resources for students and practically-oriented researchers and professionals in geology, geological, mining, and mineral resources engineering who need a reference of mineralogy, applied to petrology.
    The downloadable resources contain 384 color plates with mineral microscopic visuals under various circumstances.

    Why the microscope? Purpose of the book
    Use of the CD
    Browsing the CD

    1 Rocks and minerals
    1.1 What is a mineral?
    1.1.1 An ordered atomic structure
    1.1.2 A given chemical composition
    .2 Classification of the minerals
    1.3 Factors of occurrence of minerals
    1.3.1 Physical factors
    1.3.2 Chemical factors Parameters linked to the fluid phase Chemical composition of the rock Silica saturation of igneous rocks Alumina saturation of igneous rocks
    1.4 Plan adopted in this guide

    2 Observations with the petrographic microscope
    2.1 Indicatrix (refractive index ellipsoid)
    2.2 The petrographic microscope
    2.3 Crystalline plate with parallel faces in crossed polarized light
    2.4 Observations in parallel polarized light (PPL)
    2.4.1 Forms, fractures, cleavages
    2.4.2 Index/refringence
    2.4.3 Color – Pleochroism
    2.4.4 Inclusions
    2.4.5 Alterations
    2.5 Observations in cross polarized light (CPL)
    2.5.1 Interference colors – Birefringence
    2.5.2 Anomalous interference colors
    2.5.3 Position of the indicatrix – Angle of extinction
    2.5.4 Sign of elongation
    2.5.5 Twinning
    2.6 Observations in convergent polarized light
    2.6.1 Obtain an interference figure
    2.6.2 Uniaxial mineral: section perpendicular to the optic axis Determining optic sign
    2.6.3 Biaxial mineral: section perpendicular to an optic axis Determining optic sign
    2.6.4 Biaxial mineral: section perpendicular to the bisector of the acute angle of the optic axes Determining optic sign
    2.6.5 Dispersion
    2.7 Fluid and melt inclusions in rock-forming minerals
    2.7.1 Definitions
    2.7.2 Identification of the fluid/melt content
    2.7.3 Primary versus secondary inclusions
    2.7.4 Potential interest of fluid/melt inclusion studies

    3 Systematic mineralogy
    3.1 Major tectosilicates: quartz – feldspars – feldspathoids
    3.1.1 Silica group
    3.1.2 Feldspars Chemical composition Stability of feldspars Occurrences of feldspars Alteration of the feldspars
    3.1.3 Feldspathoids Chemical composition Occurrences
    3.2 Major ferro-magnesian minerals: micas, chlorites, amphiboles, pyroxenes, olivines, serpentines
    3.2.1 Micas and related minerals Structure and chemical composition Alterations of micas Stability of micas Occurrences of micas Lithium-bearing micas Paragonite Brittle micas Stilpnomelane Talc Zussmanite – Howieite – Deerite
    3.2.2 Chlorites Structure and chemical composition Occurrences of chlorites
    3.2.3 Amphiboles Structure and chemical composition Classification of the amphiboles (Leake, 1978) Stability of amphiboles Occurrences of amphiboles
    3.2.4 Pyroxenes Structure and chemical composition Stability of pyroxenes Occurrences of the pyroxenes
    3.2.5 Olivine group Structure and chemical composition Stability of olivines Occurrences of olivines Alterations of olivine
    3.2.6 Serpentine and serpentinization
    3.3 Aluminous minerals
    3.3.1 Structure and chemical composition Alumina silicates: andalusite, sillimanite, kyanite Aluminous garnets Staurolite Chloritoid Cordierite Magnesiocarpholite Sapphirine Topaz Beryl Corundum Pyrophyllite Diaspore (gibbsite and boehmite)
    3.3.2 Occurrences Metamorphic rocks Igneous rocks Metasomatic rocks Sedimentary rocks and alterites
    3.4 Calcic, magnesian and calc-magnesian minerals
    3.4.1 Chemical composition and stability Carbonates Aluminous, anhydrous and hydrated, calcic silicates Non aluminous calcium silicates Magnesian, non-aluminous silicates (oxides and hydroxides) (anhydrous and hydrated; saturated and under-saturated in silica) Ferro-magnesian calcic silicates
    3.4.2 Occurrences Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks Igneous rocks Hydrothermal veins Alteration minerals
    3.5 Accessory minerals
    3.5.1 Spinel group Chemical composition Occurrences
    3.5.2 Boron minerals Tourmaline Axinite Datolite
    3.5.3 Phosphates Apatite Monazite Xenotime
    3.5.4 Lithium bearing minerals Amblygonite Petalite Pollucite
    3.5.5 Titanium bearing minerals Rutile Ilmenite Titanite Perovskite
    3.5.6 Zircon
    3.5.7 Titano-and zircono-silicates and silicates of the alkaline rocks
    3.5.8 Oxides of niobium, tantale and zirconium of alkaline rocks
    3.6 Minerals of sedimentary rocks and alterites
    3.6.1 Clay minerals Structure and chemical composition Occurrences
    3.6.2 Evaporites minerals
    3.7 Ore minerals
    3.7.1 Barite
    3.7.2 Fluorite
    3.7.3 Sphalerite
    3.7.4 Scheelite
    3.7.5 Cassiterite

    Appendix – Calculation of the structural formula of a mineral
    A selection of books


    Trained as a mining engineer and petrologist, Professor Michel Demange received both his PhD in engineering from the Ecole des Mines in Paris, and his Phd in Geology from Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI with honors. He started his career with a French National Service period in the management of the ‘Mines de Gabon’ in Gabon. His research career has brought him to many places around the world, where he has collected the multiple sample that form the educational basis of his publications. Having educated various subjects within his expertise, he was the course director of various mining and geology departments of his institute throughout France and the driving force behind its structural petrology group. Dr Demange is a member of the French Committee of Geology.