Minimizing the Use of Chemicals to Control Scaling in Sea Water Reverse Osmosis: Improved Prediction of the Scaling Potential of Calcium Carbonate: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Minimizing the Use of Chemicals to Control Scaling in Sea Water Reverse Osmosis: Improved Prediction of the Scaling Potential of Calcium Carbonate

1st Edition

By Tarek Kamal Abdalla Waly

CRC Press

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Paperback: 9780415615785
pub: 2011-06-01
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Description

A comprehensive and detailed study on the scaling potential of calcium carbonate in seawater reverse osmosis systems (SWRO), this book provides a new approach for calculating the degree of supersaturation and the pH of the SWRO systems concentrates with the assistance of the feed-water pH and the inorganic carbon constituents. Furthermore, the book highlights the weakness in the present supersaturation indices and membrane manufacturers programs. Finally, the research suggested that SWRO concentrate is much lower undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate than previously thought. This was confirmed by comprehensive pilot testing where acids and antiscalants used to prevent calcium carbonate scaling were completely eliminated from the pilot plant.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1

1.1 Background

1.2 Problem definition

1.3 The Overall Aim of the research

1.4 Research objectives

1.5 References

Chapter 2

2.1 Abstract

2.2 Background

Introduction

Induction time

Measurement tools

Effect of exchange CO2 on induction time

2.3 Materials

Inductively coupled plasma

Conductivity meter

pH meter

Reactors

Synthetic seawater concentrate preparation

2.4 Methods

Measurement of calcium with ICP

Salinity and accuracy of direct measurement of calcium in solution

Measurement of calcium carbonate retained on membrane filters

Effect of salinity, stability and accuracy of conductivity and pH measurment

Effect of mixing on the induction time

2.5 Results

Effect of salinity on the ICP measurements and accuracy

Accuracy of measurement of calcium carbonate retained on membrane filters

The effect of salinity on the conductivity and the pH measurments

The effect of carbon dioxide exchange in an open system

2.6 Conclusions

2.7 List of Symbols

2.8 References

Chapter 3

3.1 Abstract

3.2 Background

3.3 Materials

Synthetic seawater concentrate preparation

3.4 Methods

The effect of particles in synthetic seawater on the induction time

The effect of particle addition

Mixing effect

3.5 Results and discussion

The effect of particles in synthetic seawater on the induction time

The effect of particle addition

The effect of mixing speed on the induction time

The nucleation mechanism

3.6 Conclusions

3.7 List of symbols

3.8 References

Chapter 4

4.1 Abstract

4.2 Background

Introduction

Solubility of salts

Common methods used to determine the precipitation potential of CaCO3:

Stiff & Davis Stability Index (S&DSI)

Saturation Index (SI)

Saturation Ratio (Sa)

Mechanism of nucleation

Homogenous nucleation

Heterogeneous nucleation in a solution

Induction time

CaCO3 phases

The formation of hydrated CaCO3 forms

4.3 Materials

pH meter

Reactors

Synthetic seawater concentrate preparation

4.4 Methods

Induction time measurements

Solutions concentrations

Calculation of SI using PhreeqC

4.5 Results

The solubility product used by the S&DSI

Homogenous and heterogeneous nucleation

4.6 Conclusions

4.7 List of symbols

4.8 References

Chapter 5

5.1 Abstract

5.2 Introduction

5.3 Background

Saturation indices

Calculation of pH in SWRO concentrates

Effect of salinity on dissociation constants

Effect of salinity on the ion activity

5.4 Materials and Methods

Pilot plant

Concentrate pH in SWRO systems

5.5 Results and Discussion

pH calculations using equilibrium equations

pH calculations using manufacturers software

pH prediction using Phreeqc evaporation model

Field seawater concentrate measurements

5.6 Conclusions

5.6 List of Symbols

5.7 References

Chapter 6

6.1 Abstract

6.2 Background

Introduction

Calcium carbonate phases

The role of inorganic ions

Solubility of salts

Common methods used to determine the precipitation potential of CaCO3:

Saturation indices (SI and Sa)

Mechanism of nucleation

Induction time

6.3 Materials

pH meter

Reactors

Synthetic seawater concentrate preparation

6.4 Methods

Induction time measurements

Determination of co-precipitation

Determination of the final crystal phase of calcium carbonate

6.5 Results and discussion

Chapter 7

7.1 Conclusions

7.2 Recommendations for future work

About the Author

Dr Tarek Waly has 13 years experience in management, consultancy, sales, marketing and research in the water and wastewater treatment field. He is currently a lead R&D engineer at DOW Chemicals. He obtained his MSc from the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education in Delft, and his Doctorate degree from the Delft University of Technology in Delft, The Netherlands.

About the Series

IHE Delft PhD Thesis Series

IHE Delft PhD programme leads to a deepening of a field of specialisation. PhD fellows do scientific research, often with conclusions that directly influence their region. At IHE Delft, PhD researchers from around the world participate in problem-focused and solution-oriented research on development issues, resulting in an inspiring research environment. PhD fellows work together with other researchers from many countries dealing with topics related to water and the environment.

PhD research is often carried out in the ‘sandwich’ model. Preparation and final reporting – the first and last portion of the programme – are carried out in Delft, while actual research is done in the fellow’s home country, under co-supervision of a local institute. Regular contacts with the promotor are maintained through visits and long-distance communication. This enables researchers to employ solutions directly to problems in their geographical region.

IHE Delft PhD degrees are awarded jointly with a university. The degrees are highly valued and fully recognised in all parts of the world.

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply