Modern Construction: Lean Project Delivery and Integrated Practices, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Modern Construction

Lean Project Delivery and Integrated Practices, 1st Edition

By Lincoln H. Forbes, Syed M. Ahmed

CRC Press

524 pages | 99 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2010-10-13
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During the past several decades, the manufacturing and service industries significantly increased their levels of productivity, quality, and profitability through the application of process improvement techniques and information technology. Unfortunately, the construction industry lags far behind in the application of performance improvement and optimization techniques, as well as its overall competitiveness. Written by Lincoln H. Forbes and Syed M. Ahmed, both highly regarded for leadership and innovation, Modern Construction: Lean Project Delivery and Integrated Practices offers cutting-edge lean tools and other productive strategies for the management of people and processes in the construction industry.

Drs. Forbes and Ahmed focus mainly on lean construction methodologies, such as The Last Planner(R) System, The Lean Project Delivery System (TM), and Integrated Project Delivery(TM). The tools and strategies offered draw on the success of the world-renowned Toyota Production System (TPS) adapted to the construction environment by construction professionals and researchers involved in developing and advocating lean construction methods. The book also discusses why true lean construction can best occur when all the construction stakeholders, owners, designers, constructors, and material suppliers are committed to the concept of optimizing the flow of activities holistically while de-emphasizing their self-interest.

The authors also reintroduce process improvement approaches such as TQM and Six Sigma as a foundation for the adoption of lean methodologies, and demonstrate how these methods can improve projects in a so-called traditional environment. The book integrates these methods with emerging interest in "green construction" and the use of information technology and Building Information Modeling (BIM), while recognizing the human element in relation to motivation, safety, and environmental stresses. Written specifically for professionals in an industry that desperately needs to play catch up, the book delineates cutting-edge approaches with the benefit of successful cases and explains how their deployment can improve construction performance and competitiveness.


"… collects lean ideas in one place. clarifies their application in the construction industry and helps to promote their adoption. … balances theoretical explanations with discussions of actual cases where practitioners successfully applies lean innovation. … thoroughly documents the human element important for success."

-- Industrial Engineer's book of the month May 2011

Table of Contents

Overview of the Construction Industry

Background on Industry Performance

Reasons for Low Productivity

The Need for New Approaches to Construction

Causes of Poor Construction Industry Performance

Categories of Construction

Who are the Parties Involved in Construction?

Project Delivery Methods

Forms of Contract

Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Forms of Contract

Strategies for Improving Construction Performance

Questions for Discussion


Productivity and Performance Measurement in Construction

Definition of Productivity

The Importance of Productivity

Productivity Trends in the United States

Lean Construction: Impact on Productivity

The Potential for Productivity Improvement

Factors Affecting Construction Productivity

Productivity Ratios

Construction Progress Measurement

Labor Productivity

Productivity Estimation Based on Worth

Transitioning from Productivity Measurement to Performance

Improvement and Lean Construction

Guidance from the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

Questions for Discussion


Web Sites

Foundations of Lean Construction

Defining Lean Construction

Lean Theory

The Toyota Experience: Building on Ford’s Principles

Accomplishing a Lean State

Origins of Lean Construction

Lean Design and Construction

Deficiencies in Traditional Construction Methods

Philosophical Differences Between Lean Construction and Traditional Construction

Barriers to Applying Manufacturing Methods to Construction

Characteristics of Lean Construction

A Systems Perspective of Lean

Lean Construction Fundamentals

Questions for Discussion


Appendix: ConsensusDocs

ConsensusDocs Endorsing Organizations

Lean Process Management

Operation of the Lean Project Delivery System

Structure of the Lean Project Delivery System

Project Definition

Lean Design Management

Designing for Lean Operations

The Last Planner System

Creating a Support System for Managing the Lean Process

The Master Schedule

The Activity Definition Model

Visual Management

Questions for Discussion


Lean Process Measurement and Lean Tools/Techniques

Measuring Lean Construction Performance

Observations on Commitment Reliability

Learning: Reasons Analysis and Action

Comments on the RNC

Lean Performance Measures

Lean Tools and Techniques

Value Stream Mapping at Tweet-Garot Inc

The Future State Map

Kaizen Methodology

The Five-Step Plan (5S)

The A3 Report

Kanban and Lean Construction

Supply Chain Management and Lean Construction

Questions for Discussion


Lean Construction Applications

Prerequisites for Lean Design and Construction

Organizing Lean Construction

Training the Work Force

Lean Coaching

The Case of Ready Mechanical

Debrief of Ready Mechanical Case

National Builder

Examples of Lean Project Delivery Application

Case 1: A Specialty Contractor’s Lean Journey and Successes: Tweet/Garot’s Lean Journey

Case 2: Belair’s Lean Experience and Lean Construction Successes

Case 3: The Grunau Company Inc.’s Lean Journey

Case 4: YAJ Window Corporation

Questions for Discussion


Lean-Based Project Delivery Methods

Disadvantages of Traditional Contracting Contracts

Overview of Relational Contracting

Characteristics of Relational Contracting

Relationship Building Among Team Members

The Integrated Project Delivery Method

Highlights of the Contractual Agreements: Case A

Lean Project Delivery (LPD) with an Integrated Agreement

Application to the Sutter Project

Lean Production Management

Roles and Responsibilities

Brief Overview of the Whiting Project

Experiences and Lessons Learned

Summary of LPM Requirements

Questions for Discussion


Information and Communication Technology/Building Information Modeling


What is Ict?

Impact of Ict on the Construction Industry

ICT Tools For Design Processes

Building Information Modeling

The Benefits of BIM at Each Construction Project Phase

BIM Benefits in the Design Phase

Case 1: Using BIM with Hilton Aquarium

Case Study 2: Savannah State Academic Building

BIM and Energy/Exergy Analysis in Design

BIM and Lean Construction


Questions for Discussion


Quality Management in Construction: A Complement to Lean Construction

Part A: Total Quality Management

Part B: Six Sigma in Construction

Sustainable Construction: Sustainability and Commissioning

Part A: Sustainability

Part B: Commissioning

Questions for Discussion


Appendix: Certification (Certifying Organizations, Designations, and Web Sites)

Web Sites for Locating Commissioning Information

Commissioning: Related Organizations with Web References

Selected Performance Improvement Tools and Techniques

Performance Improvement in Construction

The Learning Curve

Cycle Time Analysis


Quality Function Deployment

Comments on the Output Target Value


Questions for Discussion


Safety Management


How Safe Is Construction?

Safety and Lean Construction

The Role of Design Professionals in Construction Safety


Questions for Discussion


Appendix: OSHA Checklists (Selected Items)

Management: Worker Factors

Management-Related Issues

Changing Management Attitudes

Moving Beyond Traditional Thinking to Lean Thinking

Diversity and Construction Quality


Voluntary Ergonomics Guidelines Developed by OSHA

The Effects of Vibration and Noise

Temperature Effects on Personnel


Systems Integration Approaches

Industrial Engineering Solutions for the Construction Industry

Professional Overview of Industrial Engineering

Case 1: Seattle Area Coffee Company

Systematic Layout Planning

Learning from Projects and Enhancing Integrated Project Delivery


Overview of Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) for Continuous Improvement in Construction

Categories of POE: Historical, Comparative, Longitudinal, Quasi-Experimental

The Role of Programming in POE

Planning for the POE

POE Procedures

Client Satisfaction with Design and Construction Services

Best Practices to Derive the Best Results from POE

Contractor Post–Mortems

An Overview of Lessons Learned from Lean Construction Projects

Enhancing the Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) Process


Sustaining Lean Construction

The Way Forward

Questions for Discussion


Appendix: Examples of the “Lessons Learned” Recommendations from the Post-Occupancy Evaluation of a New Educational Facility

Glossary of Lean Terms


Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Construction / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Engineering
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Design / General