423 pages | 13 Color Illus. | 275 B/W Illus.
Modern Diagnostic X-ray Sources: Technology, Manufacturing, Reliability gives an up-to-date summary of X-ray source design for applications in modern diagnostic medical imaging. It lays a sound groundwork for education and advanced training in the physics of X-ray production and X-ray interactions with matter. The book begins with a historical overview of X-ray tube and generator development, including key achievements leading up to the current technological and economic state of the field.
The book covers the physics of X-ray generation, including the process of constructing X-ray source devices. The stand-alone chapters can be read continuously or in selections. They take you inside diagnostic X-ray tubes, illustrating their design, functions, metrics for validation, and interfaces. The detailed descriptions enable objective comparison and benchmarking.
This detailed presentation of X-ray tube creation and functions enables you to understand how to optimize tube efficiency, particularly with consideration for economics and the environment. It also simplifies fault finding. Along with covering the past and current state of the field, the book assesses the future regarding developing new X-ray sources that can enhance performance and yield greater benefits to the scientific community and to the public.
"The author has produced a unique reference about medical X-ray imaging technologies. Designers and technologists who are actively involved in designing the forthcoming generations of medical X-ray systems could benefit from this book."
—Axel Mainzer Koenig, CEO, 21st Century Data Analysis, in The Optical Society
"This unique book provides fascinating and useful tours of some of the many worlds supporting a single high-value technology product. Stakeholders in the use of x-rays in medicine will find complete chapters on topics, including history, basic x-ray physics, imaging, tube design, manufacturing, alternative technologies, and economics. The chapters covering basics contain comprehensive reviews provided in a readable style. The ‘industrial’ chapters provide equally readable access behind the curtains describing much of what it takes to deliver an x-ray tube to a hospital. Much of this information is impossible to find elsewhere. A comprehensive demonstration of the interlocking of fundamental science, engineering, and industrial processes … recommended to all those interested in how things work."
—Stephen Balter, Ph.D., Professor of Clinical Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center
"Rolf Behling, based on his long and deep technical and industrial experience in this field, is a true heir of Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and C.H.F. Müller and is a perfect author for writing this exciting story. I can recommend this book not only to specialists but also to the interested general reading public … I am sure this book will be a success!"
—Georg Gärtner, Southeast University Nanjing
"… very valuable for engineers and physicists."
—Professor Dr. Peter Schreiber
"…very comprehensive…. The author provides insight into state-of-the-art and future medical applications."
—Dr. Jens-Peter Schlomka, Morpho Detection Germany GmbH
"This book is a state-of-the-art, comprehensive journey into the world of medical X-ray. It handsomely bridges the history, the technical generation, and the use, as well as gives a technical outlook from the perspective of a very accomplished developer of X-ray components and systems."
—Dr. Stephan E.L. Haferl, Industrial X-ray Technologies (IXT)
"…an accurate and comprehensive overview of the technology and physics behind today’s X-ray sources. If you work in the field of medical X-ray imaging, I highly recommend you read this book, and you will likely keep it on your desk for reference."
—Mats Danielsson, Professor, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
"This book fills a significant gap. There has been a great need for a single work that thoroughly covers the physics and engineering of medical X-ray sources."
—Norbert J. Pelc, Professor of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine
"I am pleased to endorse Rolf’s detailed description of X-ray technological innovations that have driven X-ray source design, performance, and reliability for more than 125 years."
—Clarence O. Clark
"… a definitive book covering all relevant aspects of X-ray sources for medical imaging. It contains a comprehensive discussion of the history, developments, and trends in relation to the requirements of medical imaging systems, and goes deep into the physics and technology."
—Roland Proksa, Philips Research Laboratories
Historical Introduction and Survey
The Discovery in Fall 1895
The Early Days of X-rays
Major Steps of Progress
Physics of Generation of Bremsstrahlung
Acceleration of Electrons
Efficiency of Energy Conversion
The X-ray Continuum Spectrum
Characteristic Radiation and Discontinuous Attenuation
Theory of the Angular Distribution of the Continuum Radiation
Angular Distribution of Characteristic Radiation
Theory of Electron Scatter in the Anode
The Thomson-Whiddington Law in More Detail
Measured and Simulated Isotropic X-ray Intensity Distribution
The Heel Effect
The Interaction of X-rays with Matter
Basics of the Attenuation of X-rays
X-ray Refraction and X-ray Lenses
More Background on Medical Imaging
Imaging Modalities and Challenges
Cardio and Vascular Imaging
Radiography/Fluoroscopy (R/F) Systems
Surgical C-Arm Systems with Monoblocks
Diagnostic X-ray Sources from the Inside
Working Principle and Types of Medical X-ray Tubes
Tube Components in Detail
The Tube Frame
Vacuum Discharges and High-Voltage Stability
Housings, System Interfacing, and Auxiliary Equipment
X-ray Source Assembly
Protection Against Implosion and Explosion
The Source of Power
Basic Functionality of the X-ray Generator
Sensing Tube Voltage and Current
Dual-Energy (Dual X-ray Color) Imaging
Filament Heating and Emission Control
Grid and Electrostatic Deflection Supply
Other Auxiliary Supplies
Tube Temperature Supervision
Matching Generator and Tube
Manufacturing, Service, and Tube Replacement
Manufacturing of X-ray Tubes
Process-Oriented versus Assembly-Oriented Production
Installation and Service
Tube Replacement and Recycling
X-ray Source Development for Medical Imaging
Application Trends for the Development of Medical X-ray Sources
Developments Which Did Not (Yet?) Make it to the Marketplace
Candidates for Next-Generation Bremsstrahlung Sources
Dream and Reality: Deficits of Bremsstrahlung Sources
Nonbremsstrahlung Sources of X-rays for Imaging
Industrial Development of Novel X-ray Sources