Modern Land Drainage: Planning, Design and Management of Agricultural Drainage Systems, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Modern Land Drainage

Planning, Design and Management of Agricultural Drainage Systems, 1st Edition

By Lambert K. Smedema, Willem F. Vlotman, David Rycroft

CRC Press

462 pages

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Hardback: 9789058095541
pub: 2004-08-15
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Description

Fully renewed and extended, this edition is a valuable source of information for anyone involved in drainage engineering and management. It provides new theories, technologies, knowledge and experiences in combination with traditional land development practices in the humid temperature zone. Aspects covered include: management and maintenance; drainage application and design; and adverse impacts on the environment. Intended as both a handbook and a textbook, this work is of particular value to university students as well as professionals within drainage development, engineering and management.

Reviews

*I was pleasantly surprised in the thoroughness that Modern Land Drainage covers world-wide agricultural land drainage issues with sufficient detail to make this an excellent text book for college or university level students… Special topics such as the "Drainage of Rice Lands" and "Computer Applications", plus discussions on field and laboratory work necessary to survey and investigate drainage problems make Modern Land Drainage unique from other books on agricultural drainage in that it covers most aspects of all topics necessary to inform the reader about the complexities and intricacies of the drainage of agricultural land…If I were to teach a course on agricultural drainage, I would choose Modern Land Drainage as my text book. William R. Johnston, P.E., Nov. 2005

**This publication will be very useful for university students of land and water engineering and by professionals who work in the agricultural water management sector, in particular those involved in land drainage projects. Julian Martinez Beltran , FAO Land and Water Electronic Newsletter No. 60, Dec. 2004

A Book Review

by

William R. Johnston, P.E.

Every now and then we need to take a fresh look at the planning, design and management of any infrastructure on which society depends. In this case, it is the planning, design and management of Agricultural Drainage Systems. Lambert K. Smedema, Willem F. Vlotman and David W. Rycroft have smartly done just that in their recently published book "Modern Land Drainage" (2004 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK). Modern Land Drainage is an updated version of the 22 year old book "Land Drainage" by Smedema and Rycroft, published by Batsford Ltd. UK (1983).

During the most recent ICID Congress held in Beijing China, Dr. Vlotman asked me if I would review his new book. It is not always easy to fairly critique a friend’s work product. However, after thinking about it, I agreed to review Modern Land Drainage as I had not recently read a book focused specifically on agricultural drainage. Over the years, during my career as a drainage engineer, I have read, studied and used a number of books on general drainage topics and specifically on agricultural drainage. Many of these books focused on one or another aspect of drainage for a particular climate or a specific area of the world, but were frequently lacking in the development of a complete discussion of the agricultural picture. Some were, in my opinion, not really suitable as text books. However, I was pleasantly surprised in the thoroughness that Modern Land Drainage covers world-wide agricultural land drainage issues with sufficient detail to make this an excellent text book for college or university level students. In this work, there are well written discussions on the drainage of humid rainfed land, arid and semi-arid irrigated land, and of humid tropics land.

Modern Land Drainage covers all hydrologic and soil-water relationships necessary to provide the reader or student a well founded understanding of the basics needed to appreciate the science behind well designed agricultural drainage systems. All aspects of planning, design and management of surface and subsurface agricultural drainage systems are also presented in this new book in sufficient detail for the reader to understand the complexity of land drainage necessary for the production of agricultural crops.

Since much of my professional work in agricultural drainage has been related to drainage problems in saline arid and semi-arid land, I was particularly interested in the discussion on soil salinity and its control. Modern Land Drainage describes the causes of soil salinity; problems related to different types of salt; plant toxicity problems; salinity classification; and the analysis of these topics very well. Recently developed salinity monitoring and mapping techniques are also discussed along with remote sensing methods for dealing with saline soils. Soil salinisation and plant-soil-water relationships are introduced to give the reader a good understanding of the importance of maintaining salt balance in any soil in order to produce high yielding agricultural crops.

Special topics such as the "Drainage of Rice Lands" and "Computer Applications", plus discussions on field and laboratory work necessary to survey and investigate drainage problems make Modern Land Drainage unique from other books on agricultural drainage in that it covers most aspects of all topics necessary to inform the reader about the complexities and intricacies of the drainage of agricultural land.

In summary, I believe Modern Land Drainage is a well written book and a needed addition to the literature on the topic of agricultural drainage. If I were to teach a course on agricultural drainage, I would choose Modern Land Drainage as my text book.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

PART I INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………….1

1 LAND DRAINAGE FOR AGRICULTURE ……………………………………..1

  • 1.1 Drainage Objectives; Scope of the Book ……………………………………………3
  • 1.2 Waterlogging Control ……………………………………………………………………..5
  • 1.3 Agro Hydrological Regimes …………………………………………………………..10
  • 1.4 Drainage Systems………………………………………………………………………….13
  • 1.5 Bio-drainage…………………………………………………………………………………14
  • 1.6 Environmental Impacts ………………………………………………………………….15
  • 1.7 Global Drainage Zones ………………………………………………………………….22
  • 1.8 Drainage Development Considerations ……………………………………………25

2 PLANNING AND DESIGN…………………………………………………………..29

  • 2.1 Field Investigations ……………………………………………………………………….29
  • 2.2 Stages of Project Preparation ………………………………………………………….30
  • 2.3 Basic Design Criteria …………………………………………………………………….31
  • 2.4 Design Rainfall …………………………………………………………………………….34
  • 2.5 Design of Field Drainage Systems…………………………………………………..37
  • 2.6 Determination of Design Criteria…………………………………………………….38

3 WATER IN THE SOIL …………………………………………………………………41

  • 3.1 Forms and Nature of Occurrence of Water in the Soil………………………..41
  • 3.2 Pressures in the Soil Water …………………………………………………………….42
  • 3.3 Soil Moisture Characteristics ………………………………………………………….44
  • 3.4 Soil Water Potential and Soil Water Movement ………………………………..46
  • 3.5 Hydraulic Conductivity………………………………………………………………….48
  • 3.6 Unsaturated Zone; Soil Moisture Constants ……………………………………..49
  • 3.7 Infiltration and Percolation …………………………………………………………….52
  • 3.8 Groundwater Flow; Laplace Equation ……………………………………………..54

PART II SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY …………………………………………………57

4 SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS………………………………………..59

  • 4.1 Pipe Drain Systems ……………………………………………………………………….60
  • 4.2 Deep Ditch Systems………………………………………………………………………63
  • 4.3 Drain Pipes…………………………………………………………………………………..64
  • 4.4 Envelopes…………………………………………………………………………………….69
  • 4.5 Envelope Design Guidelines and Criteria…………………………………………75
  • 4.6 Structures in Pipe Drain Systems…………………………………………………….83
  • 4.7 Construction of Pipe Drain Systems ………………………………………………..88

5 SURFACE/SHALLOW DRAINAGE SYSTEMS…………………………..103

  • 5.1 Bedding Systems…………………………………………………………………………104
  • 5.2 Shallow Ditch Systems ………………………………………………………………..106
  • 5.3 Mole Drainage Systems ……………………………………………………………….113
  • 5.4 Pipe Drainage Systems…………………………………………………………………115
  • 5.5 Complementary Measures…………………………………………………………….118

6 MAIN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS……………………………………………………121

  • 6.1 Main Features……………………………………………………………………………..121
  • 6.2 Low Land and Upland Drainage……………………………………………………128

PART III PLANNING AND DESIGN…………………………………………………………135

7 DESIGN OF PIPE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS…………………………………..137

  • 7.1 Flow Patterns………………………………………………………………………………137
  • 7.2 Drain Spacing Formulae ………………………………………………………………140
  • 7.3 Hooghoudt Formula …………………………………………………………………….142
  • 7.4 Non-Steady State Drainage Formulae…………………………………………….146
  • 7.5 Basic Design Criteria …………………………………………………………………..153
  • 7.6 Drain Depth………………………………………………………………………………..160
  • 7.7 Pipe Diameter……………………………………………………………………………..162

8 DESIGN DISCHARGES……………………………………………………………..169

  • 8.1 Discharge Transformation…………………………………………………………….169
  • 8.2 Approaches ………………………………………………………………………………..172
  • 8.3 Statistical Analysis of Observed Discharges …………………………………..174
  • 8.4 Flat basins ………………………………………………………………………………….175
  • 8.5 Sloping Basins…………………………………………………………………………….181
  • 8.6 Area Reduction Formulae …………………………………………………………….189
  • 8.7 Discharge Reduction through Storage ……………………………………………191

9 HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF DRAINAGE CANALS AND STRUCTURES ………………………………………………………………….201

  • 9.1 Drainage Canals ………………………………………………………………………….201
  • 9.2 Structures in Drainage Canals……………………………………………………….210
  • 9.3 Tidal Outlets……………………………………………………………………………….216
  • 9.4 Pumps………………………………………………………………………………………..220

PART IV SALINITY CONTROL ……………………………………………………………….229

10 SOIL SALINITY ………………………………………………………………………..231

  • 10.1 Forms of Occurrence and Distribution of Salts in the Soil ………………..232
  • 10.2 Agricultural Impacts; Diagnosis and Assessment…………………………….237
  • 10.3 Classification………………………………………………………………………………245
  • 10.4 Conventional Mapping and Sampling…………………………………………….248
  • 10.5 New Salinity Measurement and Mapping Techniques ……………………..252

11 IRRIGATION INDUCED SALINISATION ………………………………….257

  • 11.1 Salinisation by the Applied Irrigation Water …………………………………..257
  • 11.2 Salinisation from the Groundwater (Capillary Salinisation)………………257
  • 11.3 Sodification ………………………………………………………………………………..260
  • 11.4 Salt Balance of Irrigated Land ………………………………………………………261
  • 11.5 Irrigation Water Quality……………………………………………………………….266

12 DRAINAGE OF IRRIGATED LAND…………………………………………..273

  • 12.1 Waterlogging and Salinity ……………………………………………………………273
  • 12.2 Surface Drainage…………………………………………………………………………274
  • 12.3 Pipe Drainage Systems…………………………………………………………………276
  • 12.4 Well or Vertical Drainage …………………………………………………………….285
  • 12.5 Main Drainage…………………………………………………………………………….288

PART V SPECIAL TOPICS………………………………………………………………………293

13 SEEPAGE AND INTERCEPTION……………………………………………….295

  • 13.1 Drainage Systems for Sloping Land ………………………………………………295
  • 13.2 Interception ………………………………………………………………………………..298
  • 13.3 Natural Drainage of River Valleys…………………………………………………301
  • 13.4 Seepage into a Polder…………………………………………………………………..302
  • 13.5 Seep Zones and Springs ……………………………………………………………….305

14 RECLAMATION AND DRAINAGE OF UNRIPENED SOILS………307

  • 14.1 The Soil Ripening Processes…………………………………………………………307
  • 14.2 Reclamation and Drainage Methods ………………………………………………309
  • 14.3 Acid Sulphate Soils……………………………………………………………………..311
  • 14.4 Subsidence Prediction ………………………………………………………………….314

15 DRAINAGE OF RICE LANDS……………………………………………………319

  • 15.1 Surface Drainage…………………………………………………………………………320
  • 15.2 Subsurface Drainage ……………………………………………………………………324
  • 15.3 Crop Diversification…………………………………………………………………….325
  • 15.4 Flood Control ……………………………………………………………………………..326

16 CONTROLLED DRAINAGE………………………………………………………329

  • 16.1 Current Issues and Developments………………………………………………….329
  • 16.2 Design Considerations …………………………………………………………………330
  • 16.3 Operation and Maintenance by Farmers …………………………………………338
  • 16.4 Controlled Drainage at the Regional Level……………………………………..341

17 COMPUTER APPLICATIONS ……………………………………………………345

  • 17.1 Drainage Design Applications ………………………………………………………345
  • 17.2 Rainfall Discharge Models……………………………………………………………348
  • 17.3 Ground Water Flow Models …………………………………………………………351
  • 17.4 Agrohydrological Models …………………………………………………………….352
  • 17.5 Salinity Prediction Models……………………………………………………………356

PART VI FIELD INVESTIGATIONS AND COST EVALUATION………………359

18 FIELD SURVEYS AND INVESTIGATIONS……………………………….361

  • 18.1 Climate ………………………………………………………………………………………361
  • 18.2 Topography………………………………………………………………………………..364
  • 18.3 Soil and Land Conditions……………………………………………………………..365
  • 18.4 Soil Parameters and Properties………………………………………………………367
  • 18.5 Watertable and Groundwater ………………………………………………………..371
  • 18.6 Hydrology and Geohydrology ………………………………………………………374
  • 18.7 Agriculture and Irrigation …………………………………………………………….375
  • 18.8 Pilot Areas and other Field Tests …………………………………………………..376
  • 18.9 Environment……………………………………………………………………………….377
  • 18.10 Miscellaneous Investigations ………………………………………………………..379

19 HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY…………………………………………………381

  • 19.1 Laboratory Measurement ……………………………………………………………..381
  • 19.2 Field Measurements below the Watertable ……………………………………..382
  • 19.3 Field Measurements above the Watertable ……………………………………..390
  • 19.4 Composed K-Values ……………………………………………………………………392
  • 19.5 Surveys and Data Processing ………………………………………………………..394

20 COST EVALUATION ………………………………………………………………..399

  • 20.1 Required Information…………………………………………………………………..399
  • 20.2 Discounting ………………………………………………………………………………..400
  • 20.3 Evaluation Indices……………………………………………………………………….401
  • 20.4 Examples of Cost Evaluation of Drainage Projects ………………………….402
  • 20.5 Cost Calculations for Pipe Drainage Systems………………………………….403

PART VII MANAGEMENT………………………………………………………………………..407

21 INSTITUTIONAL, ORGANISATIONAL AND FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS……………………………………………………………………409

  • 21.1 Drainage Laws ……………………………………………………………………………409
  • 21.2 Development and Management Models………………………………………….409
  • 21.3 Public Drainage Organisation ……………………………………………………….412
  • 21.4 Financing……………………………………………………………………………………414

22 MAINTENANCE……………………………………………………………………….419

  • 22.1 Classification………………………………………………………………………………419
  • 22.2 Organisation, Planning and Execution……………………………………………419
  • 22.3 Maintenance of Open Canals ………………………………………………………..420
  • 22.4 Maintenance of Pipe Drains………………………………………………………….426
  • 22.5 Developing Countries ………………………………………………………………….430

23 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND BENCHMARKING…………433

  • 23.1 Drainage Design and Performance ………………………………………………..433
  • 23.2 Indicators……………………………………………………………………………………434
  • 23.3 Performance Assessment Procedure ………………………………………………434
  • 23.4 Performance Checking of Pipe Systems …………………………………………437
  • 23.5 Causes of Under-Performance of Drainage Systems………………………..438

INDEX ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..441

ABOUT THE AUTHORS …………………………………………………………………………… 447

About the Authors

LAMBERT K SMEDEMA worked for most of his career for Euroconsult on irrigation in Africa and South America and on drainage in the Middle East and Asia. He was a lecturer/researcher at the University of Nairobi and at the Delft University of Technology. During the nineties, he worked as a consultant with the World Bank and with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Lambert Smedema is currently working as an independent consultant.

WILLEM F VLOTMAN has worked both with consultants and research organisations throughout his professional career. Since November 2004, he has been working for Sinclair Knight Merz (SKM) consultants, in Tatura, Australia as Senior Irrigation and Drainage Specialist. Dr. Vlotman has worked widely internationally and written numerous publications. He is chairman of the Working Group on Drainage of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID).

DAVID W RYCROFT began his professional career working for the UK Ministry of Agriculture at their Field Drainage Experimental Unit based in Cambridge. He subsequently joined consultants Sir M MacDonald and Partners and worked as a salinity control and land drainage specialist on large irrigation projects in Iraq, Somalia and Egypt. In 1979, David Rycroft joined the Institute of Irrigation Studies (Southampton University) to teach in combination with his overseas consultancy work.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC003000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General