Modern Land Drainage: Planning, Design and Management of Agricultural Drainage Systems, 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Modern Land Drainage

Planning, Design and Management of Agricultural Drainage Systems, 2nd Edition

By Willem F. Vlotman, David W. Rycroft, Lambert K. Smedema

CRC Press

530 pages

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Description

Modern Land Drainage 2nd edition is a fully revised and updated edition of the 2004 edition. Modern Land Drainage describes traditional drainage formulas (Hooghoudt, Kirkham, Donnan, Ernst, Glover-Dumm) for rainfed agriculture in the humid temperature zone. Significant parts are devoted to drainage for salinity control of irrigated land in (semi-) arid zones, and to drainage of rice land in the humid tropics. Institutional, management and maintenance aspects are extensively covered, as well as the mitigation of adverse impacts of drainage interventions on the environment. The latest computer applications for drainage design in the context of integrated water management are described (DRAINMOD, HEC, SWAP, etc.). Field surveys are executed by governments, with the aid of consultants, but rarely are the end stakeholders (i.e., farmers and general public) involved from inception to planning to execution of a drainage system. Yet, during the Operation, Management and Maintenance (OMM) phase of a water management system, they are expected to takeover, run, bear and be responsible for the costs of OMM. The book describes successful methodologies and processes to be followed for engagement of stakeholders at all levels, from government to farm, from minister to farmer, and, from beginning to end. The book covers all aspects needed for sustainable drainage. The latest survey methodologies with satellites and drones are suggested to assess cause and effect. Waterlogging and salinity are the effect of something caused most likely upstream of the drainage problem location. Hence treating the cause may be more cost-effective. Triple Bottom Line (social, environmental and financial considerations) and the water-food-energy nexus are an integral part of the drainage design process. Controlled drainage, i.e. the balance of removal and conservation of drainage water and minimising solute transport as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA principle) is extensively described. This work is intended for use both as a university level textbook and as a professional handbook; it is of particular value to professionals engaged in drainage development in the context of integrated water resources and river basin management, civil and agricultural engineers, government officials, university students and libraries.

Table of Contents

PART I INTRODUCTION

1 LAND DRAINAGE FOR AGRICULTURE

1.1 Drainage Objectives; Scope of the Book

1.2 Global Drainage Zones

1.2.1 Temperate zone

1.2.2 Arid and semiarid zone

1.2.3 Humid and semi-humid zone

1.3 Agro-Hydrological Regimes

1.4 Waterlogging Control

1.4.1 Positive and adverse impacts

1.4.2 Responses to improved drainage

1.5 Salinity Control

1.6 Drainage Systems

1.7 Bio-Drainage

1.8 Environmental Impacts

1.8.1 Stream flow regimes

1.8.2 Water quality

1.8.3 Wetlands and conservation drainage

1.8.4 Public health

1.9 Drainage Development Considerations

2 PLANNING AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

2.1 Design rainfall

2.2 Percolation of excess irrigation water

2.3 Design of field drainage systems

2.4 Determination of design criteria

3 REMOTE SENSING AND FIELD RECONNAISSANCE

3.1 Need for drainage and problem diagnosis

3.2 Remote sensing and aerial survey

3.3 Field investigations

3.4 Planning stakeholder engagement

3.5 Stages of project preparation

3.6 Operation, management and maintenance

4 ASSESSMENT OF COSTS

4.1 Required Information

4.2 Discounting

4.3 Evaluation Indices

4.4 Cost Evaluation of Open and Pipe Drainage Systems incl. O&M

4.5 Cost Calculations for Pipe Drainage Systems

4.5.1 Cost structure for pipe drainage construction

4.5.2 Guidelines for cost calculations

4.5.3 Example cost calculation

PART II INVESTIGATIONS

5 CLIMATE, LAND, SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT

5.1 Climate

5.1.1 Climate; soil moisture balance calculations

5.1.2 Climate: rainfall depth-duration-frequency studies

5.2 Topography

5.3 Soil and Land Conditions

5.4 Soil Parameters and Properties

5.4.1 Texture

5.4.2 Plasticity index

5.4.3 Bulk density and soil moisture content

5.4.4 Sample quantity and density

5.4.5 Data requirement for drain envelope design

5.5 Watertable and Groundwater

5.5.1 Watertable observation wells

5.5.2 Piezometric studies

5.5.3 Groundwater sampling

5.6 Hydrology and Geohydrology

5.6.1 Runoff and flooding

5.6.2 Outlet conditions

5.6.3 Geohydrological conditions

5.7 Agriculture and Irrigation

5.8 Pilot Areas and Field Testing

5.8.1 Types of pilot areas

5.8.2 Analysis of results of pilot areas

5.8.3 Visual drainage need assessment

5.8.4 Statistical analysis

5.9 Environmental Impact

5.9.1 Environmental impact assessment

5.9.2 Miscellaneous investigations

6 WATER IN THE SOIL

6.1 Forms and Nature of Occurrence of Water in the Soil

6.2 Pressures in the Soil Water

6.3 Soil Moisture Characteristics

6.4 Soil Water Potential and Soil Water Movement

6.5 Unsaturated Zone; Soil Moisture Constants

6.6 Infiltration and Percolation

6.7 Groundwater Flow; Laplace Equation

7 HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

7.1 Laboratory Measurement

7.2 Field Measurements below the Watertable

7.2.1 Augerhole method

7.2.2 Piezometer method

7.2.3 Drain outflow method

7.3 Field Measurements above the Watertable

7.3.1 Infiltrometer-method

7.3.2 Inverted augerhole method (Porchet method)

7.4 Composed K-Values

7.5 Surveys and Data Processing

PART III SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY

8 SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

8.1 Pipe Drain Systems

8.2 Deep Ditch Systems

8.3 Drainpipes

8.4 Envelopes

8.4.1 Envelope need

8.4.2 Material selection

8.4.3 Envelope thickness

8.5 Envelope Design Guidelines and Criteria

8.5.1 Granular envelopes

8.5.2 Organic envelopes

8.5.3 Synthetic envelopes

8.6 Structures in Pipe Drain Systems

8.6.1 Surface water inlets

8.6.2 Inspection, junctions and control

8.6.3 Crossings

8.6.4 Outlet of a pipe drain into a ditch or canal

8.6.5 Sump outlet

8.7 Construction of Pipe Drain Systems

8.7.1 Setting out, depth and grade control

8.7.2 Installation methods and machinery

8.7.3 Construction and quality control

8.7.4 Timing of installation

8.7.5 Installation below the watertable

8.7.6 Backfill

9 SURFACE/SHALLOW DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

9.1 Bedding Systems

9.2 Shallow Ditch Systems

9.2.1 Types of shallow ditch systems

9.2.2 Some technical aspects of shallow ditch systems

9.3 Mole Drainage Systems

9.4 Pipe Drainage Systems

9.5 Complementary Measures

9.5.1 Sub-soiling

9.5.2 Deep ploughing

9.5.3 Chemical amendments and organic matter

9.5.4 Land levelling

10 MAIN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

10.1 Main Features

10.1.1 Drainage basin (watershed, catchment)

10.1.2 Types and alignment of drainage canals

10.1.3 Outlet and water levels

10.1.4 Outlet Structures

10.2 Lowland and Upland Drainage

10.2.1 Lowland polder

10.2.2 River polders

10.2.3 Upland discharges

10.2.4 Drainage of urban areas

PART IV DESIGN

11 DESIGN OF PIPE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

11.1 Flow Patterns

11.2 Drain Spacing Formulae

11.3 Hooghoudt Formula

11.3.1 Use of the Hooghoudt formula

11.3.2 Notes on the Hooghoudt formula

11.3.3 Drain spacing determination in anisotropic soils

11.4 Non-Steady State Drainage Formulae

11.4.1 Falling watertable (Glover-Dumm formula)

11.4.2 Fluctuating watertable (de Zeeuw and Hellinga formula)

11.5 Basic Design Criteria

11.5.1 Criteria for off-season drainage

11.5.2 Criteria for crop-season drainage

11.5.3 The impact of drain depth and drainable pore space

11.5.4 Drainage criteria determined by simulation

11.6 Drain Depth

11.7 Pipe Diameter

12 DESIGN DISCHARGES

12.1 Discharge Transformation

12.2 Design Considerations

12.3 Statistical Analysis of Observed Discharges

12.4 Flat basins

12.4.1 Subsurface drainage

12.4.2 Shallow drainage

12.4.3 Further guidance for flat basins

12.5 Sloping Basins

12.5.1 Rational formula

12.5.2 Curve Number method

12.5.3 Synthetic hydrographs

12.6 Area Reduction Formulae

12.7 Discharge Reduction through Storage

12.7.1 Retention reservoirs

12.7.2 Canal storage

13 DESIGN OF DRAINAGE CANALS, PUMPS AND STRUCTURES

13.1 Drainage Canals

13.1.1 Discharge rate

13.1.2 Hydraulic gradient and water levels

13.1.3 Permissible flow velocities

13.1.4 Cross-section

13.1.5 Roughness coefficient

13.1.6 Freeboard

13.2 Structures in Drainage Canals

13.2.1 Culverts and bridges

13.2.2 Weirs

13.2.3 Backwater curves

13.2.4 Example Canal Design

13.3 Tidal Outlets

13.3.1 Local variations in tide

13.3.2 Discharge through a sluice

13.3.3 Example of calculations

13.4 Pumps

13.4.1 Types of pumps

13.4.2 Pumping head and characteristics

13.4.3 Pump selection

13.4.4 Sump and intake design

13.4.5 Power and cost calculations

13.4.6 Example cost calculations of an electrically driven pump

PART V SALINITY CONTROL

14 SOIL SALINITY

14.1 Forms of Occurrence and Distribution of Salts in the Soil

14.1.1 The soil solution

14.1.2 Adsorbed cations

14.1.3 Equilibrium relationships

14.1.4 Distribution of salts in the soil

14.2 Agricultural Impacts; Diagnosis and Assessment

14.2.1 Osmotic problems

14.2.2 Toxicity problems

14.2.3 Dispersion problems

14.2.4 Corrosion problems

14.3 Classification

14.3.1 Classification systems

14.3.2 Field appearance

14.4 Conventional Mapping and Sampling

14.4.1 Sampling

14.4.2 Laboratory analysis

14.5 New Salinity Measurement and Mapping Techniques

14.5.1 The EM38

14.5.2 Time Domain Reflectometry

14.5.3 Remote sensing methods

15 IRRIGATION INDUCED SALINISATION

15.1 Salinisation by the Applied Irrigation Water

15.2 Salinisation from the Groundwater (Capillary Salinisation)

15.2.1 Critical watertable depth

15.2.2 Factors influencing capillary salinisation

15.3 Sodification

15.4 Salt Balance of Irrigated Land

15.4.1 Leaching requirement calculations

15.4.2 Regional salt balances

15.5 Irrigation Water Quality

15.5.1 Salinity hazard

15.5.2 Sodicity hazard

15.5.3 Toxicity hazards

15.5.4 Examples of irrigation water quality appraisal

16 DRAINAGE OF IRRIGATED LAND

16.1 Waterlogging and Salinity

16.2 Surface Drainage

16.3 Pipe Drainage Systems

16.3.1 Drain depth

16.3.2 Design criteria

16.3.3 Layout patterns

16.3.4 Pipe diameter

16.4 Well or Vertical Drainage

16.4.1 Types of aquifers

16.4.2 Design of well (vertical) drainage

16.5 Main Drainage

16.5.1 Design discharge

16.5.2 Disposal of saline drainage water

PART VI SPECIAL TOPICS

17 SEEPAGE AND INTERCEPTION

17.1 Drainage Systems for Sloping Land

17.1.1 Longitudinal drainage

17.1.2 Transverse drainage

17.2 Interception

17.2.1 Interception of seepage down the slope

17.2.2 Interception of Canal Seepage

17.3 Natural Drainage of River Valleys

17.4 Seepage into a Polder

17.4.1 Semi-confined flow

17.4.2 Phreatic flow

17.5 Seep Zones and Springs

18 RECLAMATION AND DRAINAGE OF UNRIPENED SOILS

18.1 The Soil Ripening Processes

18.1.1 Physical ripening

18.1.2 Other ripening processes

18.2 Reclamation and Drainage Methods

18.2.1 Early reclamation stage

18.2.2 Development of the hydraulic conductivity (K-value)

18.2.3 Advanced reclamation stage

18.2.4 Drainage, evaporation and ripening

18.3 Acid Sulphate Soils

18.3.1 Acidification processes

18.3.2 Neutralisation and reclamation

18.3.3 Diagnosis

18.4 Subsidence Prediction

18.4.1 Ripening subsidence

18.4.2 Settlement subsidence due to lowering of the watertable

18.4.3 Oxidation of peat soils

18.4.4 Experiences in the Netherlands

19 DRAINAGE OF RICE LANDS

19.1 Surface Drainage

19.2 Subsurface Drainage

19.3 Crop Diversification

19.4 Flood Control

20 CONTROLLED DRAINAGE

20.1 Issues and Developments

20.2 Design Considerations

20.2.1 Layout and technical provisions

20.2.2 Drain depth

20.2.3 Reuse arrangements

20.2.4 Discharge control and watertable management

20.3 Operation and Maintenance by Farmers

20.4 Controlled Drainage at the Regional Level

21 COMPUTER APPLICATIONS

21.1 Drainage Design Applications

21.1.1 Field systems

21.1.2 Canal systems

21.1.3 Preparation of drawings and documents

21.2 Rainfall Discharge Models

21.2.1 TR-20 model

21.2.2 HEC-HMS

21.3 Ground Water Flow Models

21.3.1 Spreadsheet models

21.3.2 MODFLOW and integrated programs

21.3.3 SGMP and SOURCE

21.4 Agrohydrological Models

21.4.1 DRAINMOD version 6

21.4.2 SWAP

21.5 Salinity Prediction Models

21.5.1 SALTMOD

21.5.2 WATSUIT

PART VII MANAGEMENT AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS

22 RESEARCH AND INNOVATION

22.1 Hydroluis Pipe-Envelope Drainage

22.2 Capiphone Drain

22.3 Precision Agriculture for Water Quality Control

22.4 Bi-level Subsurface Drainage

23 INSTITUTIONAL, ORGANISATIONAL AND FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS

23.1 Drainage Laws

23.2 Development and Management Models

23.2.1 Public/private good model

23.2.2 Participatory Development

23.2.3 Management Transfer

23.3 Public Drainage Organisation

23.4 Financing

23.4.1 Investments

23.4.2 Operation and Maintenance Costs

23.4.3 Fee Systems

24 MAINTENANCE

24.1 Classification

24.2 Organisation, Planning and Execution

24.3 Maintenance of Open Drainage Canals

24.3.1 Problems

24.3.2 Requirements

24.3.3 Methods and Equipment

24.3.4 Environmental considerations

24.4 Maintenance of Pipe Drains

24.4.1 Pipe Cleaning

24.4.2 Entry of roots

24.4.3 Chemical clogging (iron ochre, gypsum)

24.4.4 Access facilities

24.4.5 Costs

24.5 Developing Countries

25 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND BENCHMARKING

25.1 Drainage Design and Performance

25.2 Indicators

25.3 Performance Assessment Procedure

25.3.1 Preliminary Investigations (first step)

25.3.2 Primary Investigation (second step)

25.3.3 Cause Analysis (third step)

25.4 Performance Checking of Pipe Systems

25.5 Causes of Under-Performance of Drainage Systems

REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

INDEX

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

About the Authors

Willem F. Vlotman worked with Dutch and American consultants on agricultural drainage, urban drainage and irrigation projects in the Netherlands, the West Indies and Asia. In 1988, he joined the International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI) and has worked for this organisation in Pakistan, Egypt and the Netherlands. In 2004 he immigrated to Australia and worked with the Murray-Darling Basin Authority until retirement in 2017. Willem Vlotman was chairman of the Working Group on Drainage of the international Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) from 1995-2013. Lambert K. Smedema worked most of his career for Euroconsult on irrigation in Africa and South America and on drainage in the Middle East and Asia. He was a lecturer/researcher at the University of Nairobi and at the Delft University of Technology. During the nineties, he worked as a consultant with the World Bank and with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Lambert Smedema is currently working as an independent consultant. David W. Rycroft began his professional career working for the UK Ministry of Agriculture at their Field Drainage Experimental Unit based in Cambridge. He subsequently joined consultants Sir M MacDonald and Partners and worked as a salinity control and land drainage specialist on large projects in Iraq, Somalia and Egypt. In 1979, David Rycroft joined the Institute of Irrigation Studies (Southampton University) to teach in combination with his overseas consultancy work.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI011000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
SCI081000
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Hydrology
TEC003000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply