1st Edition

Multilingualism in the Andes Policies, Politics, Power

By Rosaleen Howard Copyright 2023
    314 Pages 9 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

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    This illuminating book critically examines multicultural language politics and policymaking in the Andean-Amazonian countries of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, demonstrating how issues of language and power throw light on the relationship between Indigenous peoples and the state.

    Based on the author’s research in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia over several decades, Howard draws comparisons over time and space. With due attention to history, the book’s focus is situated in the years following the turn of the millennium, a period in which ideological shifts have affected continuity in official policy delivery even as processes of language shift from Indigenous languages such as Aymara and Quechua, to Spanish, have accelerated. The book combines in-depth description and analysis of state-level activity with ethnographic description of responses to policy on the ground. The author works with concepts of technologies of power and language regimentation to draw out the hegemonic workings of power as exercised through language policy creation at multiple scales.

    This book will be key reading for students and scholars of critical sociolinguistic ethnography, the history, society and politics of the Andean region, and linguistic anthropology, language policy and planning, and Latin American studies more broadly.

    Table of contents

    Preface by Luis Enrique López


    List of acronyms

    List of figures and tables

    Part I Setting the scene

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    A colonial prelude

    The multilingual states of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia

    The ethnographic and cross-disciplinary nature of the research

    Historical roots of Indigenous language policy in the Andes

    Indigenous social movements in Latin America and scholarly responses

    Indigenous language policy in the Andes today

    The view of language guiding my research

    The structure of the book

    Chapter 2 Languages, peoples, places


    The cultural positioning of the self in the Andes

    Social classification and naming of peoples and languages

    Language ideologies, semiosis, and the performance of identities

    Languages and peoples: a geographical view

    Language distribution

    A statistical view

    Language usage

    Indigenous peoples and the state

    Final remarks: Indigenous people, language, and the environment

    Chapter 3 Language policies, politics, and power


    The field of language policy and planning research

    Language and power

    Institutional arrangements for the governance of the plural state

    Legislative instruments for the regimentation of Indigenous languages

    Paradigms of diversity: shifting discourses of the plural state

    Language policy and the technologies of power

    Final remarks

    Part II Language and power in the education sphere

    Indigenous education in the Andes: Introduction

    Chapter 4 The policies and politics of Indigenous education in Ecuador

    The peak years of IBE in Ecuador: 1988-2006

    IBE in the Citizen Revolution years: 2007-2017

    IBE teacher training programmes and Indigenous Universities

    Indigenous education in Ecuador since 2017

    Final remarks

    Chapter 5 The policies and politics of Indigenous education in Peru

    1900-1930: Education and the "civilising" process

    1930-1970: Expanding Westernisation and Hispanisation

    1970-1990: Education policy for a multilingual and pluricultural reality

    1990-2006: Neo-liberalism meets the politics of identity

    2006-2011 An anti-Indigenous turn

    2011-2020 Envisioning a multilingual state

    Managing sociolinguistic diversity in policy and practice

    Final remarks

    Chapter 6 The policies and politics of Indigenous education in Bolivia


    20th century up until the 1952 Revolution

    1952 to 1982 including periods of military rule

    1982 return to democracy until 2005

    Evo Morales’s presidency 2006-2019

    Final remarks

    Indigenous education in the Andes: Comparative summary

    Part III Language in (post-)colonial spaces

    Chapter 7 Literacy, textualisation and mediatisation


    A people without writing?

    Literacy in the colonial period

    Ideologies of literacy and symbolic power

    Graphisation of Andean Indigenous languages

    Vernacular literacies in present times

    Andean Indigenous languages in literature, popular culture, and media

    Final remarks

    Chapter 8 Translation and interpreting: From past to present


    Theoretical considerations and the Andean context

    Interpreting and translation in historical perspective

    Translation and interpreting in the post-millennial period

    Final remarks

    Chapter 9 Concluding reflections: Paradoxes of diversity

    Glossary of terms

    List of legislative instruments




    Rosaleen Howard is Professor Emerita in the School of Modern Languages at Newcastle University with specialism in Latin American Sociolinguistics and Linguistic Anthropology. Editor of Creating Context in Andean Cultures (Oxford University Press, 1997) and co-editor of Knowledge and Learning in the Andes: Ethnographic Perspectives (Liverpool University Press, 2002). Author of Por los linderos de la lengua: ideologías lingüísticas en los Andes (Institute of Peruvian Studies, Lima, 2007) and Beyond the lexicon of difference: Discursive Performance of Identity in the Andes, Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies, 4 (1): 17–46, 2009.