Multimedia Content Encryption : Techniques and Applications book cover
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1st Edition

Multimedia Content Encryption
Techniques and Applications




ISBN 9781420065275
Published September 17, 2008 by Auerbach Publications
224 Pages - 137 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The widespread use of image, audio, and video data makes media content protection increasingly necessary and urgent. For maximum safety, it is no longer sufficient to merely control access rights. In order to fully protect multimedia data from piracy or unauthorized use, it must be secured through encryption prior to its transmission or distribution. Multimedia Content Encryption: Techniques and Applications presents the latest research results in this dynamic field.

The book begins with the history of multimedia encryption and then examines general performance requirements of encryption and fundamental encrypting techniques. It discusses common techniques of complete, partial, and compression-combined encryption; as well as the more specialized forms, including perception, scalable, and commutative encryption. In addition, the author reviews watermarking and joint fingerprint embedding and decryption. Later chapters discuss typical attacks on multimedia encryption, as well as the principles for designing secure algorithms and various applications. An exploration of open issues, up-and-coming topics, and areas for further research rounds out the coverage.

Shiguo Lian is the author or co-author of more than fifty peer-reviewed journal and conference articles covering topics of network security and multimedia content protection, including cryptography, secure P2P content sharing, digital rights management (DRM), encryption, watermarking, digital fingerprinting, and authentication. By following the techniques outlined in this book, users will be better able to protect the integrity of their multimedia data and develop greater confidence that their data will not be misappropriated.  

Table of Contents

Introduction
Background
Definition
History
Classification
Book Organization
References
Performance Requirement of Multimedia Content Encryption
Introduction
Security Requirement
Cryptographic Security
Key Sensitivity
Plaintext Sensitivity
Ciphertext Randomness
Perceptual Security
Subjective Metric
Objective Metric
Security Level
Compression Efficiency
Encryption Efficiency
Format Compliance
Application Suitability
Summary
References
Fundamental Techniques
Introduction
Cryptography
Cipher
Symmetric Cipher or Asymmetric Cipher
Block Cipher or Stream Cipher
Encryption Mode of Block Cipher
ECB Mode
CBC Mode
CFB Mode
OFB Mode
CTR Mode
Cryptanalysis
Multimedia Compression
Audio Compression
Image Compression
Video Compression
Scalable Coding
Multimedia Communication
Transmission Network
Application Scenarios
Digital Watermarking
Summary
References
Complete Encryption
Definition of Complete Encryption
Classification of Complete Encryption
Encryption Algorithms for Raw Data or Compressed Data
Raw Data Encryption
Compressed Data Encryption
Typical Encryption Algorithms
Permutation
Random Pixel Permutation
Random Line Permutation
Chaotic Map-Based Permutation
Random Modulation
Confusion-Diffusion Algorithm
Partial DES
Security and Efficiency
Hardware Implementation
Lightweight Encryption
Performance Comparison
Summary
References
Partial Encryption
Definition of Partial Encryption
Data Partitioning
Part Selection
Classification of Partial Encryption
Partial Image Encryption
Raw Image Encryption
Partial Image Encryption during Compression
Partial Encryption in Run-Length Coding
Partial Encryption in Wavelet-Based Codec
Partial Encryption of the Compressed Image
Partial Audio Encryption
Partial Video Encryption
Encryption after Compression
Encryption during Compression
MPEG2 Video Encryption
MPEG4 AVC/H.264 Video Encryption
Performance Comparison
Summary
References
Compression-Combined Encryption
Definition of Compression-Combined Encryption
Secure Huffman Coding Based on Random Huffman-Tree
Permutation
Secure Arithmetic Coding Based on Interval Permutation
Secure Coding Based on Index Encryption
Secure Fixed-Length Coding (FLC) Based on Index
Encryption
Secure Variable-Length Coding (VLC) Based on Index
Encryption
Secure Coding Based on Exp-Golomb Code
Secure Coding Based on Huffman Code
Random Coefficient Scanning
Random Scanning in Wavelet Domain
Random Scanning in DCT Domain
Performance Comparison
Summary
References
Perceptual Encryption
Definition of Perceptual Encryption
Perceptual Encryption Based on Bit-Plane Selection
Bit-Plane Encryption in the Spatial Domain
Bit-Plane Encryption in the DCT Domain
Bit-Plane Encryption in the Wavelet Domain
Perceptual Encryption Based on Frequency Band Selection
Frequency Band Encryption in a DCT Block
Frequency Band Encryption in the Wavelet Domain
Performance Comparison
Summary
References
Scalable Encryption
Definition of Scalable Encryption
Scalable Media Coding
Layered Coding
Layered and Progressive Coding
Progressive Coding
Scalable Coding
Scalable Encryption Algorithms
Scalable Encryption for Layered Coding
Scalable Encryption for Layered and Progressive Coding
Scalable Encryption for Progressive Coding
Scalable Encryption for Scalable Coding
Performance Comparison
Summary
References
Commutative Watermarking and Encryption
Definition of Commutative Watermarking and Encryption
CWE Based on Partial Encryption
The General Architecture
The Improved Scheme
Selection of the Encryption Part and Watermarking Part
CWE Based on Homomorphic Operations
The CWE Scheme Based on XOR Operation
The CWE Scheme Based on Module Addition
Performance Comparison
Summary
References
Joint Fingerprint Embedding and Decryption
Definition of Joint Fingerprint Embedding and Decryption
Typical JFD Schemes
The JFD Scheme Based on Broadcast Encryption
The JFD Scheme Based on Codeword Modification
The JFD Scheme Based on Partial Decryption
The JFD Scheme Based on Index Modification
The JFD Scheme Based on Homomorphic Operations
Performance Comparison
Summary
References
Typical Attacks on Multimedia Encryption
Security Requirement of Multimedia Encryption
Cryptographic Attacks
Flaws in Perceptual Security
Level Encryption in Run-Level Coding
Statistical Model-Based Attack on Sign Encryption
Replacement Attack
Replacement Attack on Bit-Plane Encryption
Replacement Attack on Frequency Band Encryption
Replacement Attack on Intra-Prediction Mode
Encryption
Summary
References
Some Principles for Secure Multimedia Encryption
Shannon’s Information Theory of Secrecy System
Principles for Secure Complete Encryption
General Models of Complete Encryption
Encryption Before or After Compression
Example of Secure Complete Encryption
Random Packet Partitioning
Packet Encryption
Decryption
Encryption Efficiency
Principles for Secure Partial Encryption
Model of Partial Encryption
Principles for Secure Encryption
Cryptographic Security
Parameter Independence
Perceptual Security
Summary of the Principles and Means
Example Based on JPEG2000 Image Encryption
Parameter Sensitivity
Parameter Independence
Selection of the Cipher
The Partial Encryption Scheme
Performance Evaluation
Principles for Secure Compression-Combined Encryption
Model of Compression-Combined Encryption Scheme
Relation between Compression Ratio and Security
Equivalent Compression-Encryption Independent Scheme
Analysis on Existing Compression-Combined
Encryption Schemes
Tradeoff between Compression Ratio and Security
The Equivalent Compression-Encryption Independent Scheme
Summary
References
Multimedia Encryption in Typical Applications
Secure Media Player
Secure Media Streaming
Secure Media Preview
Secure Media Transcoding
Secure Media Distribution
Digital Rights Management
References
Open Issues
Perceptual Security
Lightweight Implementation
Contradiction between Format Compliance and Upgrade
Ability to Support Direct Operations
Key Management
Combination between Encryption and Other Means
Summary

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