Multimedia Environmental Models : The Fugacity Approach, Second Edition book cover
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2nd Edition

Multimedia Environmental Models
The Fugacity Approach, Second Edition




ISBN 9781566705424
Published February 26, 2001 by CRC Press
272 Pages

 
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Book Description

Completely revised and updated, Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach, Second Edition continues to provide simple techniques for calculating how chemicals behave in the environment, where they accumulate, how long they persist, and how this leads to human exposure. The book develops, describes, and illustrates the framework and procedures for calculating the behavior of chemicals in our multimedia environment of air, water, soil, and sediments, as well as the diversity of biota that reside in these media.
While other books focus on specific compartments, such as the atmosphere, or specific substances, such as PCBs, this book presents the big picture of how organic chemicals behave in the total environment. It does this by providing examples of calculation methods based on the fugacity approach and explaining how to access up-to-date property databases and estimation methods as well as computer programs, which are available from the Internet. In addition, the models are Web based, instead of on a floppy disk as in the previous edition.
Building on the work developed in the First Edition, the Second Edition includes:

  • A how-to modeling section, more worked examples and problems- most with solutions and answers
  • Expanded treatment of structure-activity relationships and modern estimation methods
  • More material illustrating applications to bioaccumulation is specific organisms and food webs
  • Emphasis on current efforts to identify PBT chemicals and exposure analysis as a component of risk assessment
  • Examples that provide each step of modeling calculations
  • Web-based models, and references to property databases, estimation methods, and computer programs from the Internet
    When you need to make assessments of chemical behavior you need current, comprehensive. Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach provides you with not only an understanding of how the multitude of organic chemicals behave in the total environment, but also with practical examples of how this behavior can be predicted using the fugacity approach.
  • Table of Contents

    INTRODUCTION
    Introduction
    Some Basic Concepts
    Units
    The Environment as Compartments
    Mass Balances
    Eulerian and Lagrangian Coordinate Systems
    Steady-State and Equilibrium
    Diffusive and Non-Diffusive Environmental Transport Processes
    Residence Times and Persistence
    Real and Evaluative Environments
    Summary
    Environmental Chemicals and Their Properties
    Introduction and Data Sources
    Identifying Priority Chemicals
    Key Chemical Properties and Classes
    The Nature of Environmental Media
    Introduction
    The Atmosphere
    The Hydrosphere or Water
    Bottom Sediments
    Soils
    Summary
    Phase Equilibrium
    Introduction
    Properties of Pure Substances
    Properties of Solutes in Solution
    Partition Coefficients
    Environmental Partition Coefficients and Z Values
    Multimedia Partitioning Calculations
    Level I Calculations
    Advection and Reactions
    Introduction
    Advection
    Degrading Reactions
    Combined Advection and Reaction
    Unsteady-State Calculations
    The Nature of Environmental Reactions
    Level II Computer Calculations
    Summary
    Intermedia Transport
    Introduction
    Diffusive and Nondiffusive Processes
    Molecular Diffusion Within a Phase
    Turbulent or Eddy Diffusion Within a Phase
    Unsteady-State Diffusion
    Diffusion in Porous Media
    Diffusion Between Phases: The Two-Resistance Concept
    Measuring Transport D Values
    Combining Series and Parallel D Values
    Level III Calculations
    Unsteady-State Conditions (Level IV)
    Applications of Fugacity Models
    Introduction, Scope and Strategies
    Level I, II and III Models
    An Air-Water Exchange Model
    A Surface Soil Model
    A Sediment-Water Exchange Model
    Qwasi Model of Chemical Fate in a Lake
    Qwasi Model of Chemical Fate in Rivers
    Qwasi Multi-Segment Models
    A Fish Bioaccumulation Model
    Sewage Treatment Plants
    Indoor Air Models
    Uptake by Plants
    Pharmacokinetic Models
    Human Exposure to Chemicals
    The PBT-LRT Attributes
    Global Models
    Closure

    ...
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