Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Multimedia Environmental Models

The Fugacity Approach, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By Donald Mackay

CRC Press

272 pages

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Hardback: 9781566705424
pub: 2001-02-26
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pub: 2001-02-26
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Description

Completely revised and updated, Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach, Second Edition continues to provide simple techniques for calculating how chemicals behave in the environment, where they accumulate, how long they persist, and how this leads to human exposure. The book develops, describes, and illustrates the framework and procedures for calculating the behavior of chemicals in our multimedia environment of air, water, soil, and sediments, as well as the diversity of biota that reside in these media.

While other books focus on specific compartments, such as the atmosphere, or specific substances, such as PCBs, this book presents the big picture of how organic chemicals behave in the total environment. It does this by providing examples of calculation methods based on the fugacity approach and explaining how to access up-to-date property databases and estimation methods as well as computer programs, which are available from the Internet. In addition, the models are Web based, instead of on a floppy disk as in the previous edition.

Building on the work developed in the First Edition, the Second Edition includes:

  • A how-to modeling section, more worked examples and problems- most with solutions and answers

  • Expanded treatment of structure-activity relationships and modern estimation methods

  • More material illustrating applications to bioaccumulation is specific organisms and food webs

  • Emphasis on current efforts to identify PBT chemicals and exposure analysis as a component of risk assessment

  • Examples that provide each step of modeling calculations

  • Web-based models, and references to property databases, estimation methods, and computer programs from the Internet

    When you need to make assessments of chemical behavior you need current, comprehensive. Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach provides you with not only an understanding of how the multitude of organic chemicals behave in the total environment, but also with practical examples of how this behavior can be predicted using the fugacity approach.

  • Table of Contents

    INTRODUCTION

    Introduction

    Some Basic Concepts

    Units

    The Environment as Compartments

    Mass Balances

    Eulerian and Lagrangian Coordinate Systems

    Steady-State and Equilibrium

    Diffusive and Non-Diffusive Environmental Transport Processes

    Residence Times and Persistence

    Real and Evaluative Environments

    Summary

    Environmental Chemicals and Their Properties

    Introduction and Data Sources

    Identifying Priority Chemicals

    Key Chemical Properties and Classes

    The Nature of Environmental Media

    Introduction

    The Atmosphere

    The Hydrosphere or Water

    Bottom Sediments

    Soils

    Summary

    Phase Equilibrium

    Introduction

    Properties of Pure Substances

    Properties of Solutes in Solution

    Partition Coefficients

    Environmental Partition Coefficients and Z Values

    Multimedia Partitioning Calculations

    Level I Calculations

    Advection and Reactions

    Introduction

    Advection

    Degrading Reactions

    Combined Advection and Reaction

    Unsteady-State Calculations

    The Nature of Environmental Reactions

    Level II Computer Calculations

    Summary

    Intermedia Transport

    Introduction

    Diffusive and Nondiffusive Processes

    Molecular Diffusion Within a Phase

    Turbulent or Eddy Diffusion Within a Phase

    Unsteady-State Diffusion

    Diffusion in Porous Media

    Diffusion Between Phases: The Two-Resistance Concept

    Measuring Transport D Values

    Combining Series and Parallel D Values

    Level III Calculations

    Unsteady-State Conditions (Level IV)

    Applications of Fugacity Models

    Introduction, Scope and Strategies

    Level I, II and III Models

    An Air-Water Exchange Model

    A Surface Soil Model

    A Sediment-Water Exchange Model

    Qwasi Model of Chemical Fate in a Lake

    Qwasi Model of Chemical Fate in Rivers

    Qwasi Multi-Segment Models

    A Fish Bioaccumulation Model

    Sewage Treatment Plants

    Indoor Air Models

    Uptake by Plants

    Pharmacokinetic Models

    Human Exposure to Chemicals

    The PBT-LRT Attributes

    Global Models

    Closure

    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    SCI013000
    SCIENCE / Chemistry / General